Chapter 2 Section 3- Spain Builds and Empire

Chapter 2 Section 3
Spain Builds and Empire
Spain Builds and Empire
 Spanish Conquistadors
– Soldiers that led expeditions to Americas
– Came looking for Gold
– Conquest of the Aztec
 Hernan Cortes
– Left Cuba and went west to what is Mexico in 1519
– Land ruled by Aztecs and Moctezuma II
– Ended up in Tenochtitlan and saw that the Aztecs had gold and
– Spanish out numbered (less than 700 to thousands)
– Spanish had superior weapons and help from Aztec enemies
Spain Builds and Empire
 Conquest of the Aztec (continued)
– Malintzin
 Indian Woman that helped the Spanish get allies
– Due to a variety of reasons, including small-pox the
Aztec empire fell to the Spanish
 Conquest of the Inca
– Francisco Pizarro
 Only 400 men in the Army, but better weapons
 Captured Cuzco and Killed the leaders
 By 1534 had control of the entire empire
Spain Builds and Empire
 Spanish Settlements
– Began to settle newly claimed lands
– Span wanted to control the migration though
 Jews, Muslims, and non-Christian forbidden in New
 Most immigrants were men
– Ruled through a council of officials
 Council of Indies (top)
– Viceroyalty of Peru- governed most of South America
– Viceroyalty of New Spain- governed most of Central
America, Mexico and Southern US
Spain Builds and Empire
 Settlements (Continued)
– 3 types of Settlements
 Pueblos- trading posts, and centers of government
 Missions- started by priests to convert Natives
 Presidios- military bases
– El Camino Real (The Royal Road)
 Connected Settlements
 Covered from Mexico City to Santa Fe and into
Spain Builds and Empire
 Exploring the Borderlands
– Southeast
 Ponce de Leon
Landed in Caribbean in 1508
Discovered gold in Puerto Rico
Become governor
1512 discovered coast of Florida
Searched for Fountain of Youth (Never found it)
St. Augustine Florida
 Hernando de Soto
– 2 decades after Ponce de Leon got permission to go into what
would be the Carolinas
– Crossed the Appalachian Mountains
– Found the Mississippi River in 1541
– Died 1542 in what would be the Oklahoma area
Spain Builds and Empire
 Exploring the Borderlands (continued)
– Southwest
 1528- Alvar Nunez de Vaca & Paniflo de Narvaez when in to
North America
 300 men
 Started in Florida
 Problems with weather and disease
 Crashed a boat near what would be Galveston
– 4 survivors captured (Including a slave named Estevanico)
– After 6 years escaped and continued to explore
– The slave became a guide for other groups
 De Vaca returned to Spain and called for better treatment of
– Wrote a book about his expedition
Spain Builds and Empire
 Exploring the Borderlands (continued)
– Southwest
 Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
– 1540 set out to explore the Southwest and look for Seven Cities of Gold
– Discovered the Grand Canyon
– Got as far north as Kansas
 Treatment of Native Americans
– Natives suffered greatly
– Forced Labor
 Peninsulares set up encomienda system- Spanish could tax local
native Americans or make them work, suppose to protect and convert
them, but really became slaves
 Set up plantations and forced Natives to work on haciendas (large
Spain Builds and Empire
 Role of Catholic Church
– Priests were ordered to convert natives to
– Cultures began to combine
– Many such as Bartolome de Las Casas said the
conversion needed to be gentle, but the
colonists rarely followed that path.
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