Chapter 2

Comunicación y Gerencia
Europe Looks
(1000 -1720)
Chapter 2
Content Standards
• North America, originally
inhabited by American
Indians, was explored
and colonized by
Europeans for economic
and religious reasons.
I can explain the economic
reasons behind the European
exploration of North America.
I can explain the religious
reasons behind the European
exploration of North America.
I can explain how competition
for control of territory and
resources in North America
led to conflicts among
colonizing powers.
- History Standard #2
• Competition for control of
the territory and
resources in North
America led to conflicts
among colonizing
- History Standard #3
What do you know about the following:
1.Who discovered America and what were
they looking for?
2.All-Water Route to Asia . . . What was it,
and why was it important?
3.The Columbian Exchange . . . What was it,
and why was it important?
FirFirst Visitors from Europe
Native Americans (Asia)
Vikings (Scandinavia)
Christopher Columbus
What he REALLY did:
• Spain v/s Portugal born?
• Studied sailing, maps,
and charts.
• All-Water Route to Asia . .
. Thought it would only
take 21 days
• Who financed the trip
after 6 years of waiting?
• Nina, Pinta, and Santa
Maria (1492)
• West Indies (Nicknamed
the Natives “Indians”)
• Cuba (Japan?)
• Island of Hispaniola
• Returned Home 1493
• What did he do for
Spain Backs MORE Voyages
Christopher Columbus
Four voyages
Gold/Forced Labor
Claimed land for Spain
Converting Natives to
Enslavement of Locals
South America (Northern
Coast) “ . . . Asia?”
• Amerigo Vespucci
• Vasco Nunez de Balboa
• Ferdinand Magellan
The Columbian Exchange
The “Exchange” of people, products, and ideas
between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres
Spain’s Empire in the
Chapter 2 Section 2
Hernan Cortes
• Conquered Cuba for
• Heard tales about
cities of gold across
the Gulf of Mexico
• Cortes went against
Spain’s wishes and
set out with 11 ships,
600 Spanish
soldiers, and 200
• An Aztec legend of a
pale-skin, feathered
Serpent god .
• . . . “the feathered
Serpent has
returned to the
Aztec Empire to
reclaim his throne.
If he comes, he
strikes at kings.”
• “Our lord and king
. . . They have arrived
at the shores of the
great sea. Their
weapons and
equipment are all
made of iron. Their
bodies are covered
everywhere; only
their faces can be
seen. They are
white, as if made of
Montezuma sends messengers
with gifts . . .
• Golden masks
inlaid with
• Headdresses
with bright
• Gold jewelry
and shields
Hernan Cortes
• Pale-faced stranger
• Spanish conquistador
• “Is this all? I and
my friends suffer
from a disease of
the heart which only
gold can cure!”
Greed . . . Fear
• After leaving the coast, Cortes founded a colony and
named it Veracruz. . . Claiming Mexico for Spain and
the Catholic Church.
• Montezuma continued to send sacks of gold in hopes
that the Spaniards would be satisfied and turn back
before reaching the city.
• The Spaniards ended up with about $8 million worth
of Aztec Gold.
The Fall of the Aztec Empire
• Montezuma’s capture
and death
• Spaniards retreat
• The “great sickness”
hits the Aztecs
• Mounted soldiers
returned with guns and
other native tribes
• Aztec Empire conquered
. . . capital of “New
Spain” is Mexico City.
The Incan Empire
• Conquistadors
explored the West
coast of South
America looking for
gold and silver
• The Incan ruler was
• Atahualpa was in a
civil war with his
Francisco Pizarro
• (1526) captured an
Incan trading boat
loaded with silver and
• Used the crew as
interpreters and led
an attack on the Incan
The Fall of the Incan Empire
• Pizarro and his men captured the Incan capital of Cuzco and held
Atahualpa for ransom promising to let him go once they were
paid . . . They never kept their promise.
• Part of the Incan Empire held out against the Spaniards for
almost 40 years . . . unlike the Aztecs who fell in two years.
• The Spaniards found far more gold in South America than in
Mexico . . the Incan Empire became Spain’s richest colony.
Defeated by Cortes and Pizarro
Spain Builds a Vast Empire
•New wealth
•Expansion of
Navy & Army
in the new
Other Spanish Explorers
• Juan Ponce de Leon
• Alva Nunez Cabeza de Vaca
• Francisco Coronado
• Hernando de Soto
Spain’s American Empire
New Spain
Northern Empire
Southern Empire
• The governing officials
put in charge of “New
Spain” and “Peru”
• Responsible for
producing wealth for
• Rich deposits of silver,
cotton, sugarcane, and
other crops grown on
• Religious communities
that usually included a
small town surrounding
farmland and a church
• Started by Catholic
religious workers called
• Natives are taught
religion, crafts, and
Social Classes in New Spain
Forced Labor (Slavery?)
• Native Americans
made up the largest
group of people in
Spain’s empire.
• Forced to work in
the mines and on
plantations under
cruel conditions.
The Spanish Crown
• Gave plantation owners
the right to demand
labor from the Native
• In return they had to
pay Native Americans
their wages, ensure
their security, and
instruct them in the
Roman Catholic religion.
Spanish Explorers
The Spanish “Borderlands”
• Explorers turned their attention to the
borderlands looking for gold. . . Alvar Nunez
Cabeza de Vaca
• Juan Ponce de Leon – (Florida) searching for
the fountain of youth
• Francisco Vasquez de Coronado(Southwestern) searching for the Seven
Cities of Gold
• Hernando de Soto- (present-day South
Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and
Tennessee) searching for the Seven Cities of
Missions in the Borderlands
• Instead of soldiers, the government sent
missionaries to start new settlements
• From the 1560s – 1820s, Spain set up
hundreds of missions in present-day New
Mexico, Arizona, Texas , California
Florida, and Georgia
Restrictions on Native Americans
- Could not leave without permission
- daily activities were scheduled to
- Forced to give up their own religious
beliefs and traditions
*Many Native Americans rebelled . . .
Some attacked missions and
missionaries or just simply left.
Death Tolls for the Natives Rise
• Disease
• Forced labor
• Tunnels caving
Africans were brought to the Caribbean . . .
Europeans Compete in
North America
Chapter 2 Section 3
• Protestant
• Martin Luther
• John Calvin
Religion & King Henry VIII
• (1534) King Henry VIII
broke away from the
Catholic Church
• Scandal/Divorce
• “The Church of England”
• England became a
Protestant country
• A country could be rich only if wealth
continually flowed into its economy and its
government treasury.
• It was the colonists duty to ship most of the
gold, silver, or other resources found in the
colony back to their home country in Europe.
*Spain was the first European country to set up
colonies in the Americas (with the use of
• The colonies existed to make the “Home/Mother”
country wealthy and powerful.
The Spanish
• Passing of King Henry VIII (Protestant) . . . Queen Mary I (Roman
Catholic) . . . Queen Elizabeth I (Protestant)
• Rivalry w/”Roman Catholic” Spain
• English raids on Spanish ships (Gold) . . . Aide to rebels (Holland)
• King Phillip (130 warships) . . . Off the coast of France
• Spanish defeated and weakened . . .
• Can you reach Asia by going through or
around the Arctic Ocean ?
Henry Hudson
•Henry Hudson’s Voyages
France and the Netherlands
in North America
Chapter 2 Section 3
Samuel de Champlain
• Fur companies hired Champlain and paid for
his expedition to lead the first French
attempt at settling in America.
• Champlain established Quebec (the 1st
permanent French settlement)
• Quebec City and Montreal . . . Trade centers
French Exploration
• Jacques Cartier
claimed eastern
Canada for France . .
. He never found an
all water route to the
east, nor did he find
silver or gold.
• Cartier reported that
there were a great
many furbearing
animal in North
Other French Explorers
• Jacques Marquette
(Missions) and Louis
Joliet (trader). . .
Explored the Great
Lakes and the
Mississippi River
• Rene Robert Cavelier
(AKA LaSalle)
claimed the
Mississippi River
Valley (Louisiana)
The French and the Native
The French:
• Learned the Native American languages
• Studied their customs and cultures
• Instead of changing their ways . . . They
accepted their ways
* Champlain was known as the “Father of
New France”
The French Fur Trade
• “New France’s” economy was based on
fur trade . . . Beaver, otter, fox, etc. . .
• Fur was very fashionable in Europe
• Rivers were used as highways to travel
across New France
• Trading posts were set up along the way
and Native Americans became friendly
with them and began to help and trade
The French Empire
• Trappers, traders,
priests, and soldiers
continued to move
into the lands that
France had claimed.
• Many trading posts
and forts were built
(Detroit, St. Louis,
and New Orleans)
Land Grants
• Cold weather and
attacks by the Iroquois
kept many people from
leaving France.
• The government and
economy in France was
stable . . . No reason for
people to leave.
• King Louis XIV set up a
land grant system to
encourage people to
• Land was given to
French nobles for
getting people to settle
there and farm the land.
• The French government
set up military forts
that connected Canada
with Louisiana and its
claims along the
Mississippi River.
New Netherlands &
New Sweden
Henry Hudson
The “New” Netherlands
1621 – Dutch West India
Company sets up a trading
 1624 – Sent 30
families to settle
 New Amsterdam–
center of new colony
located on Manhattan
 Purchased from
Native Americans
 Grows slowly - No real
reason to move there.
Their country was
prosperous and
New York City
1626 – Peter Minuit, governor of
colony, buys land for about $24-$26
(beads, knives, etc…)
Swedes in New Netherlands
Mid-1600s  Sweden in Golden Age
settled small, under-funded colony
[called “New Sweden”] near New
1655  Dutch under
Peter Stuyvesant
attack New Sweden.
 Main fort fell after
bloodless siege.
 New Sweden absorbed
into New Netherland.
New Amsterdam,
New English King Takes Over
* Civil War in England
Parliament (mainly
Puritans) and
supporters of
Charles I.
* King beheaded for
• Puritans run country for 11
* 1660 – King Charles II
takes over
New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony
Charles II granted New Netherland’s land to his
brother, the Duke of York, [before he controlled
the area!]
1664  English soldiers arrived.
 Dutch had little ammunition and poor defenses.
 Stuyvesant forced to surrender without firing
a shot.
Renamed “New York”
 England gained strategic harbor between her
northern & southern colonies.
 England now controlled the Atlantic coast!
The Impact on Native
• Furs
• Manufactured Goods . . .
cloth, iron pots, tools, and
• Huron/French
• Iroquois/Dutch
Competition for fur
Tribal Enemies
Dutch had guns
Native American attacks
Depletion of fur-bearing
• Disease
Native Americans’ value to the colonist decreased,
yet their land became more valuable.
Describe the
impact that the
Spanish had on
Native Americans
in North America.
Describe the
impact that the
French had on
Native Americans
in North America.
Describe the
impact that the
Dutch had on
Native Americans
in North America.
What is
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