Learning Objectives
 3.1 Identify key management skills associated
with effective communication.
 3.2 Explain what causes interpersonal
communications to fail.
 3.3 Describe the principles of good oral and
written communications.
 3.4 Describe the factors that influence which
communication method to use.
 3.5 Suggest ways that a manager can improve
communication with employees and with
What is
Communication – Communication is the
act of exchanging information. It can be
used to inform, command, instruct, assess,
influence, and persuade other people.
Significance of Communication
 Managers spend over threequarters of their time
communicating. Good
managers use their
communication skills to
absorb information,
motivate employees, and
deal effectively with
customers, co-workers,
senior managers, vendors
and stakeholders.
Communication as a Management Skill
Communicating effectively is an important management skill for
several reasons:
Managers must give direction to people who work for them.
Managers must be able to motivate people.
Managers must be able to convince customers that they should do
business with them.
Managers must be able to absorb the ideas of others.
Managers must be able to persuade other people.
What is
Interpersonal Communication is an
interactive process between individuals that
involves sending and receiving verbal and
nonverbal messages.
Factors that Interfere with Interpersonal
Several factors that can interfere with interpersonal
communication include:
Inappropriate assumptions
Different interpretations of the meaning of words (semantics)
Emotions either preceding or during communication
Poor listening habits
Inadequate communication skills
Insufficient feedback
Differences in the interpretations of nonverbal communications
Elements of Communication
Before managers can master oral or written communication they
must be able to:
Identify their audience
Develop active listening skills
Learn to ask questions effectively
Give and receive feedback
Understand the importance of nonverbal communication
Identifying the Audience
Managers communicate daily with a variety of individuals and/or
To communicate effectively, managers should tailor
communications to their unique audience.
Each audience possesses a different need for information which
contributes toward achieving organizational objectives.
Active Listening is the conscious process
of securing information (including feelings or
emotions) through attention and observation.
Don’t assume anything.
Don’t interrupt.
Don’t guess about intentions.
Don’t react too quickly.
Don’t exhibit bad behavior.
How to Be a Better Listener
Some suggestions for effective listening include the following:
Select and appropriate time and place to hear a person out, based
on the need for privacy and comfort.
Avoid if possible, placing nonverbal barriers between you and an
employee when conversing.
Take notes, if necessary to help retain key points and demonstrate
Be Patient
How to Be a Better Listener - Continued
• Provide supportive cues; nod your head, offer a confirming remark,
maintain eye contact, echo a few keywords, or paraphrase a key
• Listen for feelings expressed “between the lines”; demonstrate
empathy, probe non-aggressively for additional thoughts; offer a
tentative summary of what you’ve heard.
• Stop (or at least minimize) your own talking!
Asking Effective Questions
Specific types of questions, when used at the appropriate time,
can lead to more effective communications.
Open ended questions – are questions that require a sentence or
more to answer, and are useful for starting dialogue.
Close ended questions – are questions that require only simple,
short answers.
Essential Ingredients for
Effective Feedback
1. Determine if feedback is desired.
2. Focus on a few items.
3. State it objectively; be specific and job-related.
4. Make sure feedback is timely and understood.
5. Establish clear priorities for future action.
6. Include positive factors that you can praise.
7. Give the recipient a chance to respond.
What is
Non verbal
Non Verbal Communication is non
verbal behaviors – actions, body language
and active listening – are vitally important
communication skills.
Experts suggest that communication
between humans is 90 percent body
language, 8 percent tone of voice, and 2
percent what you say.
Methods of Communication:
Written Communication
1. Letters – useful for official notices, formally recorded
statements, and lengthy communications.
2. Email – similar to letters, however emails are less formal than
letters and should be carefully tailored to their recipients.
3. Reports – are used to convey background information,
analyses of pros and cons, and recommendations to superiors
and colleagues.
4. Social Media – is a very informal method of communication
and should be a discouraged method of communication for
any private information regarding employees or company
Principles of Good Writing
Many managers have difficulty writing well. To improve their
writing managers can apply three basic principles:
Write as simply and clearly as possible.
Be sure that the content and tone of the document are appropriate
for the audience.
Proofread the document.
Methods of Communication:
Person to Person
Informal Chats – suitable for day-to-day contacts, directions,
expressions of care and concern, exchanges of information,
progress reviews, and some disciplinary sessions.
Planned Appointments – appropriate for regular appraisal
reviews, recurring joint work sessions, and so forth.
Telephone Calls – These are useful for quick checkups or for
imparting or receiving key information, instructions, or data.
Developing Oral Communication Skills
All businesspeople need to speak effectively. Whether they are talking
to colleagues or presenting a keynote address, businesspeople should
follow the same rules of thumb:
Make emotional contact with listeners by addressing them by name where
Avoid speaking in monotone.
Be enthusiastic and project a positive outlook.
Avoid interrupting others.
Always be courteous
Avoid empty sounds or words such as “uh,” “um,” “like,” and “you know.”
Improving Employee Communication
Some guidelines to improve communications with employees are:
Keep it simple – use a picture, chart or illustration when possible.
Keep it brief – short messages are retained; long messages are lost.
Keep it regular – communicate daily and repeat important messages.
Keep it consistent – strive for consistency so as not to confuse.
Make it timely and proactive – deliver time sensitive messages & FAQs
Seek feedback – confirm that messages are received and understood.
Model the way – act and behave consistent with communications.
Handling Difficult Customers
The following are best practices for handling difficult customers:
• Address the situation promptly
and professionally; do not put it
• Prepare by obtaining facts and
developing a clear goal for the
• Choose the right time and place
for the conversation.
• Be direct and to the point.
• Invite the employee to share their
view of the problem.
• Engage the employee in a 2-way
• Obtain the employee’s
commitment on how you plan to
move forward.
• Set a date to follow-up and
evaluate your progress.
Communication Guidelines What Should I Tell the Boss?
Progress towards performance goals and standards. This
covers such items as deliverables, output, and quality.
Matters that may cause controversy. Arguments with other
managers, a controversial interpretation of company policy, a
discipline problem within your department – all are issues that
should be brought to your superior.
Attitudes and morale. Tell your boss regularly about both the
general level of morale and employee reactions to specific issues.
Constructive suggestions. Offer up new ideas, suggestions for
changes in policies and procedures, and cost-saving approaches
for the organization to consider.