Chapter 16 - cchristopherlee

Chapter 16
Motivating Employees
The Concept of Motivation
• Motivation - the arousal, direction, and
persistence of behavior
• Forces either intrinsic or extrinsic to a person
that arouse enthusiasm and persistence
• Employee motivation affects productivity
• A manager’s job is to channel motivation toward
the accomplishment of goals
– To find the right combination of motivational
techniques & rewards
16.1 A Simple Model of Motivation
Content Perspectives on Motivation
If managers understand employees’ needs, they
can design appropriate reward systems
 Needs motivate people
 Needs translate into an internal drive that motivates
 People have a variety of needs
16.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
ERG Theory by Clayton Alderfer
 Existence needs - the needs for physical well-being
 Relatedness needs - the needs for satisfactory
relationships with others
 Growth needs - the needs that focus on the
development of human potential and the desire for
personal growth
frustration–regression principle: failure to meet a
high-order need may cause a regression to an already
satisfied lower-order need
16.3 The Motivational Benefits of Job Flexibility
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
DQ – What is a manager’s role from the Herzberg Model perspective?
McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory
Certain types of needs are acquired or learned
during an individual’s lifetime. People are not born
with these needs, but may learn them through life
 Need for achievement
 Need for affiliation
 Need for power
Process Perspectives on Motivation
• To explain how employees select behaviors
with which to meet their needs and
determine if their choices were successful
Goal Setting Theory
Equity Theory
Expectancy Theory
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Process Theories –
Goal Setting Theory
• Increase motivation by setting goals - Specific,
challenging goals increase motivation and performance
when the goals are accepted by subordinates who
receive feedback to indicate progress toward goal
• Key components of the Goal Setting Theory:
– Goal specificity
– Goal difficulty
– Goal acceptance
– Feedback
Process Theories –
Equity Theory by J. Stacy Adams
• Individual perceptions of fairness – how fairly
treated relative to others
• Perceived inequity can be reduced by:
» Changing work effort
» Changing outcomes
» Changing perception
» Leaving the job
• Inequity occurs when the input-to-outcome
ratios are out of balance
Process Theories –
Expectancy Theory by Victor Vroom
• Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations
about their ability to perform tasks and receive
desired rewards
• E – P: putting effort into a given task will lead to
high performance
• P – O: successful performance of a task will lead to
the desired outcome
• Valence – the value or attraction an individual has
for an outcome
Major Elements of Expectancy Theory
Reinforcement Perspective
on Motivation
Behavior Modification
Reinforcement theory
techniques used to
modify behavior
An act that causes a
behavior to be
repeated or inhibited
Law of Effect
Positively reinforced
behavior tends to be
repeated and
unreinforced behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Pleasant and rewarding
following a desired
Changing Behavior with Reinforcement
Social Learning Theory
Individual’s motivation can result from thoughts,
beliefs, and observations
– Vicarious learning – observational learning from
seeing others’ behaviors and rewards
– Self-reinforcement – motivating yourself by reaching
goals and providing positive reinforcement for yourself
– Self-efficacy – belief about your own ability to
accomplish tasks
Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
Job Design for Motivation
 Job Simplification
 Job Rotation
 Job Enlargement
 Job Enrichment
16.7 The Job Characteristics Model
Core Job Dimensions
Dimensions that determine a
job’s motivational potential:
Based on:
 Skill variety
 Task identity
 Task significance
 Autonomy
 Feedback
→ Critical Psychological
→ Personal and Work
→ Employee GrowthNeed Strength
Innovative Ideas for Motivating
• Organizations are using various types of incentive
compensation to motivate employees to higher
levels of performance
• Variable compensation is a key motivational tool
• Incentive plans can backfire
– They should be combined with motivational ideas and
intrinsic rewards
• Incentives should reward the desired behavior
New Motivational Compensation Programs
Empowering People to Meet Higher
Employees receive information about company
Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute
to company goals
Employees have the power to make substance
Employees are rewarded based on company
A Continuum of Empowerment
Giving Meaning to Work through
• Instill a sense of support and meaning
• Help employees obtain intrinsic reward
• Focus on learning, contribution, and growth
Discussion Questions
Define motivation.
Explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Identify and describe content theories of motivation based on employee needs.
Identify and explain process theories of motivation.
Describe the reinforcement perspective.
Describe how the reinforcement perspective can be used to motivate employees.
Explain social learning theory.
Explain vicarious learning.
Explain self-reinforcement.
Explain self-efficacy.
Discuss major approaches to job design and how job design influences motivation.
Explain how empowerment heightens employee motivation.
Identify three elements of employee engagement and describe some ways
managers can create a work environment that promotes engagement.
Discussion Questions (in progress)
What is the manager’s role from the Herzberg Model perspective?