Document

advertisement
Ch. 17 領導
Leadership
Most firms are overmanaged and underled.
—John Kotter
 好的領導人應該是:
頭腦清楚,眼光快又準,能傾聽,胸襟格局大
,肚量大,手腕高,能放下身段勤跑基層。
 張忠謀:領導人的定義有兩項要件
1. 有人跟隨,2. 知道往對的方向走。
 盡己之力(智),盡人之力(智)。
 Leader, subordinates, situation.
22
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
綱要
17.1 leader and leadership
17.2 early theories of leadership
17.3 three major contingency theories of leadership
17.4 contemporary views of leadership
17.5 contemporary issues affecting leadership
33
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
17.1 Leaders and Leadership
 Leader: Someone who can influence others and
who has managerial authority
 Leadership: What leaders do; the process of
influencing a group to achieve goals
 Ideally, all managers should be leaders.
4
17.2 early theories of leadership
1. Trait theories: selecting
2. Behavioral theories: training
___________________________________________
3. Contingency theories: (re)placing
interaction with subordinates, situation
討論:1.《十九顆星》。
2. 持續改善,對人尊重 (分工合作,做人做事)
3. 考慮情境,調整自己。
5
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
*Trait Theories
1. Drive,
2. the desire to lead,
3. honesty and integrity,
4. self-confidence,
5. intelligence,
6. job-relevant knowledge,
7. extraversion.
討論:
1. 前科學
2. 權,勢,威,魔,魅,
神,師,愛,專,誠
3. 第五級領導人:謙虛的
個性,專業的堅持
6
6
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
*Behavioral Theories
The Managerial Grid
 Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:
 Concern for people
 Concern for production
 Places managerial styles in five categories
7
The Managerial Grid: either X or Y, vs. Both
High
9
8
Concern for People
(9,9)
(1,9)
Socialite
7
Team Leadership
6
Middle of the Road
(5,5)
5
4
3
Impoverished
2
(1,1)
1
1
Low
2
Authoritarian
(9,1)
3
4
5
6
Concern for Task
7
8
9
High
8
17.3 three major contingency
theories of leadership
1. Fiedler 權變模式
2. Hersey and Blanchard 情境領導理論
3. House 途徑 / 目標理論
9
1. The Fiedler Model
 Proposes that effective group performance depends upon
the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting
with followers and the degree to which the situation
allows the leader to control and influence.
10
Fiedler Model: 警長 vs. 舞女
Good
Performance
Task
Oriented
Relationship
Oriented
Poor
Favorable
Category
I
Leader-Member
Good
Relations
Task Structure
High
II
Moderate
III
IV
V
VI
Unfavorable
VII VIII
Good Good Good Poor Poor
Poor Poor
High
Low Low
Low
Low
High High
11
Position Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak11
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
Findings of the Fiedler Model
 Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire
 Assumptions: A certain leadership style should
be most effective in different types of situations.
 Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.
 Matching the leader to the situation or changing the
situation to make it favorable to the leader is
required.
12
2. Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)
Hersey and Blanchard’s
 Follower readiness:
 R1: followers are unable and unwilling
 R2: followers are unable but willing
 R3: followers are able but unwilling
 R4: followers are able and willing
 Specific leadership styles:
 Telling: high task- low relationship leadership
 Selling: high task- high relationship leadership
 Participating: low task- high relationship
leadership
 Delegating: low task- low relationship leadership
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
13
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model
14
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3. Path-Goal Theory: 李遠哲,Drucker
Environmental
Contingency Factors
• Task Structure
Leader
Behavior
• Formal Authority System
• Work Group
Outcomes
• Directive
• Supportive
• Participative
• Achievement oriented
•Performanc
e
• Satisfaction
Subordinate
Contingency Factors
• Locus of Control
• Experience
• Perceived Ability
15
17.4 Contemporary Views of Leadership
1. 領導者 / 成員交換理論
2. 轉換型 / 交易型領導
3. 魅力 / 願景領導
4. 團隊領導
*Stogdill’s handbook of leadership
16
1. Leader – Member Exchange Theory (LMX)
 leaders create in-groups and out-groups and
those in the in-group will have higher
performance, less turnover, and greater job
satisfaction.
17
2. Transactional vs. Transformational
 Transactional leaders are leaders who lead
primarily by using social exchanges (transactions).
 Transformational leaders are leaders who
stimulate and inspire (transform) followers to
achieve extraordinary outcomes.
 Evidence supporting the superiority of
transformational leadership over transactional
leadership is overwhelmingly impressive.
18
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3. Charismatic Leadership
 Have a vision.
 Are able to articulate the vision.
 Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.
 Are sensitive to the environment and follower
needs.
 Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
19
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
4. Team leadership
A dream makes a team, the team builds the dream.
沒有天才團隊,就沒有卓越的領導人;但缺乏優
秀領導人,也不可能有偉大團隊
20
20
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
17.5 contemporary issues affecting
leadership
1. 管理權力
2. 發展信任
3. 賦權給員工
4. 跨文化領導
5. 成為有效的領導者
領導者訓練 / 替代領導
21
1. Five Sources of a Leader’s Power
 Expert power
 Legitimate power
a leader has as a result of his or as a result of his or her
expertise, skills, or
her position.
knowledge.
 Coercive power
 Referent power
to punish or control.
arise because of a
 Reward power
person’s desirable
to give positive benefits or
resources or admired
rewards.
personal traits.
*Ins and Outs of Office Politics
22
22
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
2. Suggestions for Building Trust
Practice openness.
Be fair.
Speak your feelings.
Tell the truth.
Show consistency.
Fulfill your promises.
Maintain confidences.
Demonstrate competence.
23
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
3. Empowering Employees
 Empowerment
 Involves increasing the decision-making discretion of
workers such that teams can make key operating
decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads,
controlling inventories, and solving quality problems
 Why empower employees?
 Quicker responses problems and faster decisions
 Addresses the problem of increased spans of control in relieving
managers to work on other problems
24
4. Cross-Cultural Leadership
Universal Elements of Effective Leadership
 Vision
 Foresight
 Providing encouragement
 Trustworthiness
 Dynamism
 Positiveness
 Proactiveness
25
Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings
• Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward
employees.
• Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without
being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak.
• Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak
frequently.
• Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out
individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass,
not energize, those individuals.
26
女性不擅長領導?
以金庸小說女主角為例
1. What women want?
有野心的女人,沒鬥志的男人
2. “I need a wife.”
3. 要懂得和別人分享權力
27
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
Where Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard
Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November 20. 2000, p. 75.
28
28
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
5. Basics of Leadership
 Give people a reason to come to work.
 Be loyal to the organization’s people
 Spend time with people who do the real work of the
organization.
 Be more open and more candid about what business
practices are acceptable and proper and how the
unacceptable ones should be fixed.
29
Leader Training
 Training is more likely to be successful with
individuals who are high self-monitors than those who
are low self-monitors.
 Individuals with higher levels of motivation to lead are
more receptive to leadership development
opportunities.
30
Substitutes for Leadership
 Follower characteristics
 Experience, training, professional orientation, or the need
for independence
 Job characteristics
 Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs
 Organization characteristics
 Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or
cohesive work groups
 Sometimes leadership is irrelevant!
31
Team work
1. Case study: a manager’s dilemma (p.488)
(1) Identify and articulate business problems
(2) Gather and analyze information applicable
(3) Identify and apply an appropriate tool for solving problems.
2. Thinking critically about ethics (p.507)
(1) Identifies Dilemma.
(2) Considers Stakeholders
(3) Analyzes Alternatives and Consequences
3. Skill exercise (p.508)
4. Team exercise (p.509)
5. Internet-based exercise (p.509)
bulleted list: suggestions of persuasion (influencing others).
.
32
重點回顧
1. 比較 authority, power, influence
2. 考量 leader, subordinates, situation
3. 區分 power: legitmate, coercive, reward,
expert, referent
33
33
Terms to Know
 Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership Model
 Fiedler contingency model, 費德勒權變模式
 path-goal theory, 途徑 - 目標理論
 charismatic leader, 魅力型領導者
 visionary leadership, 願景領導
 Trust, 信任
 Empowerment, 賦權
34
34
暢銷書或文章之一
1. 塑造眾望所歸的遠景
2. 利用溝通,建立共識
3. 利用定位,建立信任
4. 自我的開展
Leaders -- The strategies for taking charge,
by W. Bennis & B. Nanus, 1988.
35
35
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
暢銷書或文章之二
1. Proactive
2. Begin with the End in Mind
3. Put First Things First
4. Think Win Win
5. Seek First to Understand then be Understood
6. Synergise
7. Sharpening the Saw
8. Finding Your Voice and Inspiring Others to Find
Theirs
Principle - Centered Leadership, by S. R. Covey, 1991.
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
36
36
暢銷書或文章之三
領導的角色:宣傳家,行為典範,教育
家,激勵者,啦啦隊長,告解神父。
1. 個人:專業,同理心
認清自己,學習如何溝通,勤奮(親自督陣)
2. 組織:有效授權下去執行,建立體制控制
塑造願景,教化員工,回饋控制。
The work of the leader, by W. Pagonis, HBR, 1992.
37
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
暢銷書或文章之四
追隨的角度:有受重視的感覺,有一種利害共同
體的感覺。A feeling of significance (community).
領導者要做出艱難決定,並承擔責任,需要
1. 公開坦率的態度(親和力),
2. 刻意壓低身段。
The hard work of being a soft manager,
by W. Peace, HBR, 1991.
38
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
追隨者最想聽到的話
你真的很重要
你做得很好
心想事成
謝謝你
祝福
你
討論: Add value to the others
39
交通大學管理學院 任維廉教授
The Planning-Controlling Link
Planning
· Goals
· Objectives
· Strategies
· Plans
Controlling
Organizing
· Standards
· Measurements
· Comparison
· Actions
· Structure
· Human
Resource
Management
Leading
· Motivation
· Leadership
· Communication
· Individual and
Group Behavior
40
Download
Related flashcards
Create Flashcards