order vs. equality vs freedom - chs

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ORDER
VS.
EQUALITY
VS
FREEDOM
WHICH ONE IS MORE
IMPORTANT TO YOU, AND
WHY?
WHY SHOULD THIS QUESTION
EVEN MATTER TO ME?
MILLENNIAL GENERATION

What do the Millennial’s supposedly
support?


Do you agree?
American youth are less likely to be
informed about government and politics
and participate less in politics
The Political Disengagement of College Students
Today
SINCE 9/11, COLLEGE STUDENTS HAVE BECOME A BIT MORE
INTERESTED IN POLITICS
THERE IS A GENERATIONAL
POLITICAL KNOWLEDGE
Presidential Election Turnout Rates
by Age
WHY SHOULD PEOPLE VOTE

Those who participate in the political
process are more likely to benefit from
gov’t programs and policies

It is true that the elderly have more political
clout than young people
 Old

people vote
Voter turnout for people under the age of
25 has dropped from 50% in 1972 to 33%
in 2000

There has not been an event that youth have
wanted to pay attention to until 9/11
AN UNCOMFORTABLE TRUTH

2/3rds of a national sample reported that
they do not understand government


Sample of U.S. Immigration and
Naturalization test
Legitimacy: the degree to which a
political system is accepted

Problem: how can the U.S. political system
be legitimate, if 66.7% of the population
doesn’t understand their own gov’t?
GAY MARRIAGE AMENDMENT
YOU AND YOUR GOV’T DETERMINE
WHETHER THIS WILL BE ACCEPTED!
A SIMPLE FACT:

Fact: the gov’t uses force to rule society

Problem: most people don’t like being
controlled
 Americans

cherish their FREEDOM
Problem: if the gov’t exists to control its
constituents, how can it maintain its
legitimacy?

Answer: people surrender some of their
FREEDOMS in order to obtain the benefits
offered by the gov’t
Government

Definition:

The institutions and processes through which public
policies are made for society




Legislative-makes the laws
Executive-enforces the laws
Judicial-interprets the laws
This definition leads to two basic questions:

How should we govern?


Ideal vs. Real Democracy
What should government do?

Does gov’t do what we want it to do?
Politics

Definition:

The process by which we select our governmental
leaders and what policies these leaders produce
 Politics
produces authoritative decisions about public
issues

Also consider Harold D. Lasswell’s definition:

Who gets what, when, and how
 Who-voters,


politicians, interest groups
Income, safety, and deference drives politics
Only a minority of people get what they want.
of politics and gov’t (issues)
 How-voting, compromising, and lobbying
 What-substance

Political participation and single-issue groups (NRA)
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE(S) OF
GOV’T?

The gov’t is held responsible for the
following:
Maintaining ORDER
 Promoting EQUALITY

 Provide

PUBLIC GOODS
Protecting Americans’ FREEDOM
DILEMMA THE GOV’T FACES

All gov’t policies reinforce certain norms at the
expense of others




FREEDOM-nation defense, collect taxes
ORDER-national defense ($400 billion a year), collect
taxes
EQUALITY-national defense, collect taxes
Which one do you feel the gov’t needs to focus
on promoting, if you had to pick one?

Explain which one is the most important to you in a
one page written explanation
ORDER

ORDER: establishing the rule of law to preserve life and to
protect property


This is the oldest objective of gov’t
Thomas Hobbes (1651) believes life without gov’t would
create a society existing in a “State of Nature.”

Social Contract: people give up some rights to a gov’t in order to
receive social order



The contract was irrevocable and humans are selfish
Hobbes believed there is a “war of all against all.”
John Locke (1690) believes unlimited gov’t leads to abuses,
and the gov’t should be from the people

Gov’t needs to protect peoples’ “natural rights” of life, liberty, and
prosperity


If the state turned itself into a tyranny, Locke argued in favor of a right
of rebellion



These ideas are found in the Declaration of Independence
Locke believed human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance
He also believed the contract could be broken
Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison regarded
Locke’s ideas as political truths
EQUALITY

EQUALITY: gov’t should provide everyone
with equal opportunities

This is the newest objective of gov’t and is
extremely controversial
 Promoting
EQUALITY became an objective of
gov’t during the Great Depression (started in 1929
when the stock market crashed)


Social Security, Medicaid (poor), Medicare (elderly)
How does the gov’t accomplish this task?

Answer: take from the rich and give to the
poor
PROVIDING PUBLIC GOODS

PROVIDING PUBLIC GOODS: benefits
and services that are available to
everyone
Example: roads, schools, and someday it
might include healthcare for all
 Basically, it’s an extension of promoting
EQUALITY

FREEDOM


FREEDOM: a measure of the number of things a
person can do without interference
There are two types of FREEDOMS that exist:

FREEDOM TO: is the absence of constraints on
behavior


FREEDOM FROM: often symbolizes the fight against
exploitation and oppression


Example: FREEDOM of Speech
Example: FREEDOM from Religion
Could to much FREEDOM be harmful?
WHAT DO AMERICANS VALUE?
80
70
60
50
40
30
FREEDOM
ORDER
EQUALITY
20
10
0
59% of Americans say they are happy with the U.S. gov’t
although 2/3rds of Americans really don’t understand gov’t
DILEMMAS THE GOV’T FACES

FREEDOM vs. ORDER
Should the military be forced to allow
homosexuals in the military?
 Should the gov’t (state or federal) be forced to
allow homosexuals to get married or disallow
gay marriage?
 Korematsu vs. U.S.
 The Patriot Act
 Fahrenheit 9/11

DILEMMAS THE GOV’T FACES

FREEDOM vs. EQUALITY


Should the gov’t be able to force businesses and
colleges to take special steps to ensure that
minorities are hired and/or accepted into college?
Should the gov’t be able to tax your earnings and use
that money to help a person that is on welfare


What if that welfare recipient continues to have children while
on welfare?
Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke
DILEMMAS THE GOV’T FACES

ORDER vs. EQUALITY
Should the KKK be able to have a parade
 Should homosexuals be able to have a gay
parade
 Hurley vs. Irish American GLIB Association
 Gay-Straight Alliance meeting at school
 Buck vs. Bell

WHAT DO DEMOCRATS VALUE
EQUALITY
FREEDOM
ORDER
Conduct research on FDR, JFK and/or Bill Clinton, and
Democrats in general
WHAT DO REPUBLICANS VALUE
ORDER
FREEDOM
EQUALITY
Conduct research on Warren Harding, Richard Nixon and/or
George W. Bush, and the Republicans in general
DILEMMAS THE GOV’T FACES

Write down two of your own example of
dilemmas the gov’t faces for each of the
following:
FREEDOM vs. ORDER
 FREEDOM vs. EQUALITY
 ORDER vs. EQUALITY


We will discuss each one in class
ORDER, EQUALITY, FREEDOM;
WHICH ONE MATTERS TO YOU?

Pick the one you feel is the most important
and explain why in a 2 page hand-written
explanation
Work with like minded individuals and do your
best to convince your fellow classmates
 You will read this in front of the class, and the
group with the most convincing argument, in
support of their topic, will receive 10 bonus
pts
 The assignment, itself, is worth 50 pts

The Policymaking System
The process by which policy comes into being and evolves over time
People

All Americans have the following:
Interests
 Problems
 Concerns


How citizens project these concerns into
the political realm becomes the true art

Martin Luther King, Jr. I have a dream
speech!
Linkage Institutions

Definition: transmitting the preferences of
Americans to the policymakers in gov’t
Political Parties
 Elections
 News & Entertainment Media
 Interest Groups

 Pick
a topic/issue you want the gov’t to support
and find two interest group that would support your
topic/issue
Policy Agenda


Definition: consists of the issues that attract the
serious attention of public officials and other
people actively involved in politics at any given
time
Political Issues


These arise when people disagree about a problem
and how to fix it.
Some issues will be considered, and others will
not.

If a politician wants to get elected again, he/she
needs to pay attention to their constituents


Dorgan, Pomeroy, Conrad, and a farm bill
A government’s policy agenda changes regularly

Bailout for many American businesses!
Policymaking Institutions

These institutions have been created by
the U.S. Constitution
Legislature (Congress)
 Executive (President)
 Courts (Federal and State)


Bureaucracies (Federal and State)

The fourth policy making institution
Policy Impacts People
Public policy: every law passed, budget established, and
ruling handed down
Policy Impacts People

Impacts of Policies:
Does it solve the problem?
 Does it create more problems?


Policies can be established through
inaction

Doing nothing or nothing different can prove
to be a very consequential decision
 Example:
disease
AIDS was considered a gay person’s
Democracy

Definition:


A system of selecting policymakers and organizing government so that
policy represents and responds to the public’s preferences
The founding fathers were not fond of democracy, b/c many of
them doubted the ability of ordinary Americans to make
informed judgments about what gov’t should do

Roger Sherman, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, said the
people “should have as little to do as may be with the gov’t.”


Read Federalist #10
Article I Section 3-Senators chosen by the state legislatures



Majority rules while protecting
minority rights
Elected by the people b/c of the 17th Amendment (1913)
Article II Section I-electoral system established
An Ideal democratic process should satisfy the following five
criteria:





Equality in voting-the principle of “one person, one vote” (Wesberry v. Sanders-1964)
Effective participation-citizens must have the chance to express their
preferences equally
Enlightened understanding-open creation and discussion of ideas by all
Citizen control of the agenda-citizens should collectively control gov’t
policies
Inclusion-gov’t must include, and extend rights to, all those subject to its
laws
Republic/Representative Gov’t
not a so-called Democracy

Republic

Definition: a form of gov’t in which sovereignty/power
rests with the people, who elect agents to
represent/govern them in lawmaking and other
decisions


Read Federalist #10
Representative Democracy

Definition: a form of gov’t in which representatives
elected by the people make and enforce laws and
policies

The people hold the ultimate power b/c the people get to
elect/re-elect the reps
Challenges to Democracy
Increased Technical Expertise
 Limited Participation in Government
 Escalating Campaign Costs
 Diverse Political Interests (policy gridlock)

Questions About Democracy
Are the people knowledgeable- and do
they apply what they know?
 Do interest groups help the process, or do
they get in the way?
 Do political parties offer clear consistent
choices for voters?
 Does the President & Congress work in
the best interests of ALL the people?

American Individualism
Individualism is the belief that individuals
should be left on their own by the
government.
 Individualism is highly valued in the United
States with a strong preference for free
markets and limited government.

Questions about the Scope of
Government
How big a role does the Constitution say
should be played by the federal
government?
 Does a bigger, more involved (active)
government limit the people’s freedoms?
 Do we need a bigger, more involved
government to protect our freedoms?

Questions about the Scope of
Government, continued
Do competing political parties make for
better policies?
 Do more interest groups create a bigger
government?
 Does the media help control the size and
policies government?

Questions about the Scope of
Government, continued
Can the president control the government,
or has it gotten too big?
 Can Congress respond to the needs of the
people, or just to the interest groups?
 Do members of Congress expand
government by seeking to be re-elected?

Questions about the Scope of
Government, continued
Do the federal courts overstep their
bounds and intrude on the powers of other
branches of government?
 Are the federal agencies too large and
unresponsive to the public they are
supposed to serve?

WHY STUDY GOV’T?
If you don’t understand gov’t, you can’t
take a legitimate part in gov’t
 Last but not least, why would you choose
not to have say in your future and the
future of the U.S.


Who gets elected often determines whether
ORDER, FREEDOM, and/or EQUALITY will
be the United State’s focus for the next four
years
PICK A PARTY OR TWO

Find out which party you like and research
a few other unique/odd parties


Vote Smart
Research and pick the top two parties you
would be inclined to support and then pick
a third odd/unique party of interest.

Explain each of the three party’s beliefs, what
they support/oppose, and why you think each
party is important in the American political
realm
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