PowerPoint Chapters 11 and 12

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Slide 1
Chapter 11
The Persuasive
Interview: The
Persuadee
Chapter Summary
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Be a Responsible Participant
Be an Informed Participant
Be an Active Participant
Summary
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be a Responsible Participant
• Both parties share ethical responsibilities
• Be honest
• Be fair
• Be skeptical
• Be thoughtful and deliberate in judgment
• Be open-minded
• Be responsive
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Informed Participant
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Psychological Strategies
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Standard/Learned Principles: We may act
automatically during persuasive interviews
Contrast Principle: Look for real differences
Rule of Reciprocation: We feel obligated to
return favors
Reciprocal Concessions: One concession
deserves another, or not
Rejection then Retreat strategy: Persuaders
may ask for a lot and settle for less
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Informed Participant
Language Strategies
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Seek the meaning of symbols
Framing and Reframing
1.
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Appealing to people
2.
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3.
4.
The use of language to frame or construct the way we see
people, places, things, and objects.
For many, majority rules
Persuaders use the bandwagon tactic when they urge
others to follow the crowd.
Simplifying the Complex
Dodging the Issue
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Informed Participant
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Logical Strategies
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The ways persuaders attempt to reason with us:
1.
Reasoning from example or generalization
2.
Reasoning from cause-to-effect
3.
Reasoning from fact or hypothesis
4.
Reasoning from sign
5.
Reasoning from analogy or comparison
6.
Reasoning from accepted belief, assumption, or
proposition
7.
Reasoning from condition
8.
Reasoning from two choices
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Informed Participant
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Evidence
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Assess the reliability and expertise of sources.
Insist on both quantity and quality of evidence.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Active Participant
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The Opening
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Be an active and critical player in the interview.
Play an active role in the opening because it
initiates the persuasive process.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Active Participant
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Creating a Need or Desire
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Ask questions, challenge arguments, and demand
solid evidence.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Active Participant
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Establishing Criteria
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Criteria enable you to weigh evidence.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Active Participant
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Presenting the Solution
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Be sure the solution meets the need and is the
best available
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Be an Active Participant
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The Closing
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Take your time when making a final decision
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary
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Good persuasive interviews involve the
interviewee as responsible, informed, critical,
and active participant who plays a central
role.
It is a mutual activity in which both parties
play active and critical roles.
Interviews are a chance for the interviewee to
act ethically, listen critically, raise important
objections, and recognize common tactics for
what they are.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter 12
The Counseling
Interview
Chapter Summary
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Preparing for the Counseling Interview
Structuring the Interview
Conducting the Interview
Summary
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Preparing for the Counseling
Interview
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Analyzing Self
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Know yourself before trying to help others know
themselves.
Good problem solvers may be poor counselors.
Do not stray beyond your level of expertise.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Preparing for the Counseling
Interview
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Analyzing the Interviewee
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Be informed but keep an open mind.
Be aware of past, present, and future events.
Be prepared for rejections of offers to counsel.
Listen rather than talk.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Preparing for the Counseling
Interview
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Selecting an Interviewing Approach
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Directive Approach
Nondirective Approach
Combination of Approaches
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Preparing for the Counseling
Interview
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Selecting the Setting
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Do not underestimate the importance of location
and seating.
A round table is a traditional arrangement for
problem solving.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structuring the Interview
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The Opening
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Initial Comments and Reactions
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Want to help and show it.
Be tactful but not indifferent.
Rapport and Orientation
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Accept seemingly irrelevant opening comments.
If you are uncomfortable, the interviewee will be
uncomfortable.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structuring the Interview
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The Opening
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Encouraging Self-Disclosure
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Self-disclosure varies from person to person.
Work Within a Known Time Frame
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structuring the Interview
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The Body of the Interview
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Feelings play central roles in counseling
interviews.
Counseling interviews rarely progress in an
orderly manner.
Enable the interviewee to relate the problem.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structuring the Interview
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structuring the Interview
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Closing the Interview
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Involve the interviewee as an active participant in
the closing.
Decide which leave-taking means is most
appropriate.
Be sincere and honest in the ways you close
interviews.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Structuring the Interview
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Evaluating the Interview
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Review all you did and did not do and accomplish.
How prepared were you for this interaction?
Which skills need more work? Preparation,
structuring, interviewing, or counseling?
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
STRUCTURING THE INTERVIEW
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The Telephone Interview
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Advantages
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Inexpensive
Convenient
Preserves Anonymity
Gives Sense of Control
Disadvantages
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Possible Inconvenient Time
Distractions
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conducting the Interview
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Listening
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Focus on the interviewee and the interviewee’s
problem.
Do not interrupt or take over the conversation.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conducting the Interview
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Observing
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Look for nonverbal signals but interpret them
cautiously.
If you are taking notes, explain why.
Note that deceptive answers may be lengthier,
more hesitant, and characterized by long pauses.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conducting the Interview
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Questioning
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Do not ask too many questions.
Keep your questions open-ended.
Phrase all questions with care.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conducting the Interview
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Responding and Informing
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Client-Centered Approach: Focuses the interview on the
interviewee.
Highly Nondirective Reactions and Responses: Give
control to the interviewee.
Nondirective Reactions and Responses: Inform and
encourage.
Directive Reactions and Responses: Advise and
evaluate but do not dictate.
Highly Directive Reactions and Responses: Dictate
strong advice and actions.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conducting the Interview
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Responding and Informing: Tips
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Responses are more nonverbal than verbal.
Silence has its limits.
Use questions that force the interviewee to formulate
answers and solutions.
Use questions to determine what a person is not saying.
A thoughtless comment or two can damage a relationship.
Exhaust all less directive means before dictating action.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Conducting the Interview
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Summary
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You take part in a counseling interview
whenever you try to help a person gain
insights into a problem.
Preparation helps to determine how to listen,
question, inform, explain, respond, and relate
to each interviewee.
Many suggestions but few rules apply to
counseling interviews.
© 2009 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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