Global Sourcing Impacts of changing global sourcing for Reebok and Nike Agenda • • • • • Benefits of Global Sourcing Risks / Issues Alternatives Recommendation Action Plans Benefits • • • • • Distribution Quality Lower cost Focus on core competencies Diversity of suppliers “…we are manufacturers without the burden of plant ownership” Benefits Domestic Manufacturing $31.00 $50.00 38% Overseas Manufacturing Benefits International Purchasing Level I Level II Level III Domestic Purchasing Only International Purchasing Only as Needed International Purchasing as Part of Sourcing Strategy Global Sourcing Level IV Global Sourcing Strategies Integrated Across Worldwide Locations Level V Global Sourcing Strategies Integrated Across Worldwide Locations and Functional Groups “Achieving Excellence in Global Sourcing”, Robert Trent and Robert Monczka Risks • Broader communication • International economic conditions – Currency fluctuation • Exposure to global issues – Human Rights – Environmental – Politics Question… “(H)ow (can) firms derive the full advantage of low cost labor and the benefits of flexible contractor relationships, while also respecting the rights of workers in developing countries?” **”International Sourcing in Athletic Footwear: Nike and Reebok” Harvard Business School Issues • Shareholder vs. Social responsibilities • Can a company afford ethics? – Limits supplier options – Increase cost – Ability to “impose” compliance to contractors/suppliers Alternatives • “Ignorance is bliss…” – “it’s not within our scope to investigate [allegations of labor violations,]” -a Nike executive – “I don’t know that I need to know” -another Nike executive Alternatives Alternatives • Memorandum of Understanding – Created in 1992, adopted in 1993 – Required compliance with “all applicable local laws” – Adhere to Nike’s environmental practices – Self reported Alternatives • Human Rights Policy – Adopted in 1990 – More specific… • Outlines Reeboks’ “position” • Exemplifies company passion – Regular on-site audits and inspections Recommendation • Plan for not only operational impacts, but also for global issues. – Balance between shareholder and ethical priorities • Define corporate position on issues and responsiveness – Specific for YOUR company Determining Ethics • Define company ethics – Corporate culture – Shareholder culture – Customer base beliefs Corporate beliefs Company Ethics Shareholder Customer beliefs beliefs • Cost analysis of impacts – How much ethics can you afford? Recommendation International Purchasing Level I Level II Level III Domestic Purchasing Only International Purchasing Only as Needed International Purchasing as Part of Sourcing Strategy Global Sourcing Level IV Global Sourcing Strategies Integrated Across Worldwide Locations Level V Global Sourcing Strategies Integrated Across Worldwide Locations and Functional Groups “Achieving Excellence in Global Sourcing”, Robert Trent and Robert Monczka Action Plan • ACT NOW! – Define and document corporate position. • Evolve… Grow… – Revise and revisit your ethics to remain in parallel with your corporate, customer, and shareholder beliefs. Action Plan • ”Workers in Contract Factories” – More detailed – Outlines compliance requirements Action Plan • “Human Rights Production Standards” – Version 3 – Includes support services – VERY detailed • Manages overtime policies, work participation within management, wages, worker age, etc… – Encourages improvements Conclusion Questions?