Wilson*s Fourteen Points

 Woodrow Wilson believed in peace, democracy and
individual rights.
Outlined the fourteen elements which Wilson
believed were essential to a lasting peace.
The purpose of the speech was really to legitimize
morally our participation and role in the war.
“Peace without Victory”
The basis for a democratic society was morality and
Wanted America to “lead” world peace rather than rule
 Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after
which there shall be no private international
understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall
proceed always frankly and in the public view.
 Countries would not make secret treaties and
 This concept is Diplomacy, and the connection to
causes is the Alliance System
 Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside
territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as
the seas may be closed in whole or in part by
international action for the enforcement of
international covenants.
 Ships would be able to travel freely in times of war.
 This concept is Trade and the connection to the cause
is Imperialism.
 The removal, so far as possible, of all economic
barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade
conditions among all the nations consenting to the
peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
 Freedom of Trade
 This concept is trade and the connection to the cause
is Imperialism.
 Adequate guarantees given and taken that national
armaments will be reduced to the lowest point
consistent with domestic safety.
 Countries would reduce their stockpiles of weapons.
 This concept is Arms reduction and the connection to
the cause is militarism.
 A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial
adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict
observance of the principle that in determining all
such questions of sovereignty the interests of the
populations concerned must have equal weight with
the equitable claims of the government whose title is
to be determined.
 The desires of colonial peoples would be taken into
consideration in creating a more peaceful world.
 This concept is Colonies / Self-Determination and the
connection to the cause is Imperialism.
 Restoring land taken from
countries by war would restore
respect for international law.
 Redrawing borders on the basis of
self-determination would reduce
conflicts among ethnic groups.
 A general association of nations must be formed under
specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual
guarantees of political independence and territorial
integrity to great and small states alike.
 Countries would work together in the League of
Nations to resolve conflicts before those conflicts
 Concept of International cooperation and connection
to cause is Militarism, Alliance System, Imperialism
 The Treaty was NOT based on Wilson’s Fourteen
Points as the Germans had been promised it would.
 Wilson wanted the idea of the 14 points to be used
more to influence the treaty, however France and
Britain thought it was too soft for Germany and
wanted to punish the country.