Woodrow Wilson believed in peace, democracy and individual rights. Outlined the fourteen elements which Wilson believed were essential to a lasting peace. The purpose of the speech was really to legitimize morally our participation and role in the war. “Peace without Victory” The basis for a democratic society was morality and ethics. Wanted America to “lead” world peace rather than rule it. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. Countries would not make secret treaties and alliances. This concept is Diplomacy, and the connection to causes is the Alliance System Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. Ships would be able to travel freely in times of war. This concept is Trade and the connection to the cause is Imperialism. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. Freedom of Trade This concept is trade and the connection to the cause is Imperialism. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. Countries would reduce their stockpiles of weapons. This concept is Arms reduction and the connection to the cause is militarism. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. The desires of colonial peoples would be taken into consideration in creating a more peaceful world. This concept is Colonies / Self-Determination and the connection to the cause is Imperialism. Restoring land taken from countries by war would restore respect for international law. Redrawing borders on the basis of self-determination would reduce conflicts among ethnic groups. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. Countries would work together in the League of Nations to resolve conflicts before those conflicts escalate. Concept of International cooperation and connection to cause is Militarism, Alliance System, Imperialism The Treaty was NOT based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points as the Germans had been promised it would. Wilson wanted the idea of the 14 points to be used more to influence the treaty, however France and Britain thought it was too soft for Germany and wanted to punish the country.