Different approaches to ethics (descriptive, normative, metaethics, moral theorizing, decision making). The nature of ethical dilemma (two or more values in conflict). The relationships among a dilemma, our values, and context or situation. The use of the ethical dilemma to reveal our assumptions, our values, and our questions. The qualities of sound moral reasoning (how we can make good judgments). The relationship between facts and values (i.e. the “is-ought” and “can-should” problem). Three ethical frameworks or systems: virtue ethics, utilitarianism, and deontology (or Kantianism). What is the basis for making an ethical decision? • We encounter a dead body. How do we react to this fact? • What is the “gut reaction” to which our book refers? • We encounter an assault in which someone is being killed by someone else. How do we react this fact? • What questions do we want answers to in each? What happened or is happening? How should things be? What ought to happen? What responses are possible? What can I/we/they do? What response should I/we/they choose? What should I/we/they do? What do I know? What is significant about what I/we/they know? Moral reasoning. A set of principles or a framework that guides the application of value to knowledge and directs thought toward action. How does one discover or create that set of principles or that framework? Is Ought Everyone desires a “good life.” The world has limited resources. Individuals fight for their own interests against the interests of others. Individual conceptions of “good life” and interests are determined by race, sex, country of origin, economic status, intelligence, etc. Define a society from a position of ignorance— that is, without knowledge of individual abilities, economic status, race, sex, social position, etc. Based on what “is,” what “ought” to be? Is that “just” your opinion? From behind the veil, what “is”? In other words, what do you know? What kind of person should I/we/they be? What is the “good” of humans and how do we manifest this in action? What action will result in an increase in happiness/pleasure and/or minimize unhappiness/displeasure? What’s the consequence of an action? To what principle must my actions adhere, regardless of the outcome? What is my duty?