Energieopslag An Energy Powerhouse

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Energieopslag

KIVI Seminar “Energie voor Verandering” 16 april 2014

Dr. Ir. Koen Broess

SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

17-4-2014

ENERGY

An Energy Powerhouse

Uniting DNV, KEMA, GL Garrad Hassan, GL Renewables Certification

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SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

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The DNV GL Group

DNV GL Group

Headquarter: Oslo, Norway

Maritime

 Headquartered in

Hamburg, Germany

 5,600 employees

 80 countries

Oil & Gas

 Headquartered in

Høvik, Norway

 5,800 employees

 30 countries

Energy

 Headquartered in

Arnhem,

Netherlands

 3,100 employees

 30 countries

Business Assurance

 Headquartered in

Milan, Italy

 2,000 employees

 50 countries

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A global service portfolio

Power testing, inspections and certification

Renewables certification

Renewables advisory

Energy advisory

Sustainable energy use

Policy Production

Transmission &

Distribution

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Use

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New Energy Technologies - the business of creating opportunities

Electricity storage

• Batteries, flywheels, PHS, CAES

• Testing laboratories

• Strategy development

• Demonstrations

Electric mobility

• Charging infrastructure

• Batteries

• V2G

• Second life

Solar PV

• Due Diligence (EI, OE, M&A)

• Storage combination

• Collective purchasing

• Technology Development

DNV GL Capabilities

Technological feasibility

New

Energy

Technologies

Joint Innovation – New Technologies

• Collaboration projects

• TAR

• Smart grid tech

• Geothermal

• µCHP, heat pumps, ..

Carbon Capture

• Membrane separation

• Test facilities

• Modelling

• Demonstrations

Commercial feasibility

Research institutes

& universities

Advanced Materials

• Power Cable investigation

• Failure investigation

• Research labs

• Polymers

• Long term behaviour

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The age of renewables and the impact on the grid

Source: IEA

Simulated German load curves on a winter workday 2012 (left), sunny spring workday (middle) and a sunny spring weekend (right)

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Three parallel trends in European power sector

Decentralization

: large amounts of distributed generation (DG), new entrants in the energy market (often SMEs); new ways of cooperation; participating end-users

Europeanization

: mergers and acquisitions; power plants at remote distance from load centers; cross-border power flows

Affordable

Requirement to have an

affordable, reliable and sustainable

grid

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Wind power in Denmark: 30% of gross power consumption in

2013; 2020 they plan to cover 50% of gross power consumption

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* Over 90 hours where wind production was more than all of Denmark’s need, peaking at

122% on October 28

Source: Energinet.dk

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The Electricity challenges of 21 st century can be countered by various solutions,….

Keeping up with a changing energy world:

Conventional:

Less income due to decrease in production

T&D Grid:

Balancing supply & demand without outage

Solar & Wind:

Intermittent production

Electricity demand:

Increased share in energy mix

- Heating (HP, CHP)

- Mobility (EV, PHEV)

CHALLENGE:

FLEXIBILITY!

regulation capacity for mismatch between production and demand

Increase plant regulation

Strengthening grid

Demand side response

Storage

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Electricity Storage

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Energy Storage

Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical, Electrochemical &

Chemical:

Batteries (Li Ion, NaS, Flow batteries,..)

Hydro storage (Pumped or passive)

Compressed air energy storage

Flywheels

Supercapacitors

Power to heat/cold (Molten salt, district heating ,..)

Power to gas (hydrogen, synthetic natural gas,..)

Superconducting magnetic energy storage

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Matching storage technologies with various applications

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12 Source: SBC Energy Institute, EPRI (2010), Bradbury (2010)

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The Kinext storage system

http://www.s4-energy.com/index.php

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Compressed air energy storage

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The energy Island

Characteristics:

Artificial island in North Sea, 15 km from the coast, size of 10x6 km 2 , water depth of sub surface inner lake is -32 to -40 m

Storage capacity of 20 GWh, able to provide about 1.500 MW

Enabler for other functionalities, e.g. 300-500 MW wind turbines, marina for maintenance offshore wind farms, other harbour facilities, substation, aquatic biomass, tourism, nature, agriculture, fish farming

2BCYCLED | Reuse of cheap Electric Vehicle Batteries for storage of solar energy.

Battery

Reuse for local electricity storage

E-storage demand

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Profiles: household profile

Example of a household weekly demand profile in the four seasons

Winter day peak higher than summer day peak

Weekly basic electricity demand of house B in different seasons

Winter

Spring

Summer

Autumn

P [kW]

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0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

Monday

Tuesday

Wed nesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

Time

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Profiles: Solar-PV generation

PV generation: 2012: 140 W p

/m 2

power(kW)

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

Monday

of 4 m

2

Winter

Spring

Summer

Autumn

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun

Tuesday

Wednesday

Friday

Sa turday

Sunday

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2BCYCLED | An End of Life Question?

Used Batteries

Recycle

?

Refurbish for high value Grid Applications

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2BCYCLED | Objectives of the project

Demonstration second life usage of used batteries at 10 households with solar panels

Offering solutions for end of life EVbatteries

Boosting grid connected Renewable

Energy by providing cheap energy storage technology

Refurbishing of batteries, prepare for reuse

Protocol development on “State of

Health determination of used batteries” and battery aging tests

Businesscase scenario’s

Determine environmental impact

Second Life (LCA)

intermittency

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2BCYCLED | Battery service life

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Energy Storage – Stelling 1

De zorg voor energieopslag ligt bij de netbedrijven, en het gebruik bij de markt

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Energy Storage – NorNed cable

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NorNed cable (HVDC ± 450 kV) – in use 06 05 2008

Investment from TenneT & Stattnet -> auction of capacity to commercial partners

Electricty grid and storage needs

International connections

Transmission grid

large scale production large scale RES

220 / 380 kV

Interregional transport

TSO

110 / 150 kV

Regional transport industry bio fermitation combined heat power

10 / 50 kV regional transport

DSO medium voltage

distribution grid

Railway marine business wind park

400/ 230 V

Low voltage consumer industry

Local RES

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Electricty grid and storage needs

International connections

Pumped

Hydro

Secondary reserve

Transmission grid

large scale production

Wind

(grid support) large scale RES

Primary

Reserve UPS

220 / 380 kV

Interregional transport

TSO

110 / 150 kV

Regional transport industry

distribution grid

Marine

- Large vessels

CES (island) bio fermitation

10 / 50 kV regional transport

DSO medium voltage business combined heat power

Wind wind park

(grid support)

Railway

Railway

Grid support

Utility vehicles

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HEMS + PV consumer industry

400/ 230 V

Low voltage

Local RES e-bike

+ PV

Energy Storage – Stelling 1 (lokaal niveau)

Probleem: Netbeheerder mag wettelijk niet aan opslag doen i.v.m. het verstoren van de markt

Echter netbeheerder is wel verantwoordelijk voor de stabiliteit van het Net

Problemen met opslag door commerciële partijen op lokaal niveau:

Snel veranderende omstandigheden (nieuwe huizen, meer zonnepanelen) -> Steeds nieuwe en andere locaties van opslag noodzakelijk

Conflict van interesses tussen netbeheerder en commerciële partij -> net ondersteuning voor stabiliteit vs handel

Opslag is vaak uitstel van investeringen in het net -> Business case is misschien voor netbeheerder positief, maar lijkt voor commerciële partijen op dit moment nog te marginaal

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Energy Storage – Stelling 1

De zorg voor energieopslag ligt bij de netbedrijven, en het gebruik bij de markt

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Energy Storage – Stelling 2

Regels en maatregelen van de overheid houden de opslag van energie tegen

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Energy Storage – Stelling 2

Discussion on the Energy Storage World forum (London 1-4 April 2014)

TERNA, Italy’s TSO is “exploring” tens of MWs of NaS and a few other storage technologies to do both time shifting and frequency regulation. When they were questioned “how dare you, it is against the rules?” , the response was “This is the right thing to do and rules have to change to accommodate this”. Later in a panel discussion, Italy’s deputy director of Infrastructure Regulatory Division answered the same question “We allowed the TSO to experiment with storage as it is a necessary thing to do”.

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2BCycled | Self consumption

11 december 2013

DEN HAAG (Energeia)

- Het is goed denkbaar dat salderen achter de meter en de korting op de energiebelasting voor collectieve energieopwekking rond 2020 "in elkaar schuiven". Concreet zou dat betekenen dat voor achter de meter opgewekte groene stroom die niet direct wordt verbruikt, alleen nog een belastingkorting zal gelden die even hoog is als de belastingkorting van 7,5 cent voor groene stroom die door burgercollectieven wordt geproduceerd.

Dat zei minister Henk Kamp (Economische Zaken) dinsdag in de Eerste Kamer, waar hij vragen beantwoordde over een aantal wetswijzigingen in de Gas- en Elektriciteitswet.

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Energy Storage – Stelling 2

Regels en maatregelen van de overheid houden de opslag van energie tegen

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Questions

Koen Broess

Koen.broess@dnvgl.com

+31 26 356 62 90

www.dnvgl.com

SAFER, SMARTER, GREENER

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17-4-2014

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