wind_overview

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Wind Turbines:

Power for a House or City

*many slides from L. Sankar

coal petroleum natural gas nuclear hydro other renewables wind

Ready to Become a

Significant Power Source

Installed capacity = 35,000 MW as of Dec 2009 (<1% national electricity).

Source: Energy Information Agency coal petroleum natural gas nuclear hydro other renewables wind

With annual growth rates of

~30%, wind could generate

20% of nation’s electricity by 2020.

Wind is Growing Worldwide end 2007

MW new 2008

MW total

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

0

Rest of World

Europe

United States

1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000

Source: AWEA’s Global Market Report

Global Electricity Consumption:

5,000 GW

U.S. Wind Power Capacity Growth: is the rollercoaster over?

Advantages of Wind Power

• Clean

• Flexible

• Large Potential for Growth

• Economically Viable (most of the time – peak opportunity)

Benefits of Wind Power

Environmental

• No air pollution

• No greenhouse gasses

• Does not pollute water with mercury

• No water needed for operations

Benefits of Wind Power

Economic Development

• Expanding Wind Power development brings jobs to rural communities

• Increased tax revenue

• Purchase of goods & services

Benefits of Wind Power

Fuel Diversity

• Domestic energy source

• Inexhaustible supply

• Small, dispersed design reduces supply risk

Benefits of Wind Power

Cost Stability

• Flat-rate pricing can offer hedge against fuel price volatility risk (fuel is “free”!)

• Electricity is inflation-proof

Wind Power Economics

Wind Power Cost of Energy

Components

Cost (

¢

/kWh) = (Capital Recovery Cost + O&M) / kWh/year

– Capital Recovery = Debt and Equity Cost

– O&M Cost = Turbine design, operating environment

– kWh/year = Wind Resource

Construction Cost Elements

Financing & Legal

Fees

3%

Development

Activity

4%

Interconnect/

Subsation

4%

Interest During

Construction

4%

Towers

(tubular steel)

10%

Construction

22%

Design &

Engineering

2%

Land

Transportation

2%

Turbines, FOB

USA

49%

Cost Nosedive Driving Wind’s

Success

Turbine Technology

Constantly Improving

• Larger turbines

• Specialized blade design

• Power electronics

• Computer modeling produces more efficient design

• Manufacturing improvements

How big is a

2.0 MW wind turbine?

This picture shows a

Vestas V-80 2.0-MW wind turbine superimposed on a

Boeing 747 JUMBO JET

Improved Capacity Factor

• Capacity Factors Above

35% at Good Wind

Sites

– Performance

Improvements due to:

– Better siting

– Larger turbines/energy capture

– Technology Advances

– Higher reliability

Examples:

Project

Performance (Year 2000)

Big Spring, Texas

•37% CF in first 9 months

Springview, Nebraska

•36% CF in first 9 months

Offshore wind: a controversial gold mine of energy

“CAPE WIND”: stay tuned…

All offshore wind farms plagued by NIMBY concerns

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