Machine Vision Basics
1. What is machine vision?
2. Some examples of machine vision
3. What can be learned from biological
4. The curse of television
What is Machine Vision?
Machine vision is the application of image
analysis techniques to factory automation. Just as
human inspectors working on assembly lines
visually inspect parts to judge the quality of
workmanship, so machine vision systems use
digital cameras and image processing software to
perform similar inspections. A machine vision
system is a computer that makes decisions based
on the analysis of digital images.
Technology Requirements
• The design of industrial vision systems
requires a broad spectrum of techniques and
disciplines. These include electrical
engineering (hardware and software design),
engineering mathematics, physics (optics and
lighting) and mechanical engineering (since
industrial vision systems deal with a mainly
mechanical world). Detailed descriptions of
the techniques and
Elements of Image Analysis
• Enhance features (discard irrelevant
• Binarize image
• Perform connectivity
• Calculate feature attributes
• Classify/measure
Elements of a Vision System
Handling system
Image capture hardware
Image processing hardware
Machine Vision Flow Chart
Photopic Vision and EM Spectrum
Natural Ambient Illumination
Scotopic Vision
Spatial Frequency Response
Mach Band
Mach Bands
Color Vision
Color Generation
Optical Illusions
Pattern Recognition
Video Scanning Approaches
Television Standards
Digital Image Basics