e-services ToT module1

Training of master Trainers Workshop
10 – 15 November 2012
e-Services Design and Delivery
Module I
Emilio Bugli Innocenti
e-Services Design & Delivery
Contents of Module I - “e-Services Design & Delivery”
e-Service Definition
The e-Service Presence
Beyond the e-Service Presence
Life Event and One-Stop-Shop Portal
The Front End and the Back End Approach
e-Service Definition
e-Services, a business concept developed by Hewlett Packard
(HP), is the idea that the World Wide Web is moving beyond ebusiness and e-commerce (that is, completing sales on the
Web) into a new phase where many business services can be
provided for a business or consumer using the Web. Some eservices, such as remote bulk printing, may be done at a Web
site; other e-services, such as news updates to subscribers, may
be sent to your computer. Other e-services will be done in the
background without the customer's immediate knowledge. HP
defines e-services as "modular, nimble, electronic services that
perform work, achieve tasks, or complete transactions
e-Service Definition
Rowley (2006): “…deeds, efforts or performances whose
delivery is mediated by information technology. Such e-service
includes the service element of e-tailing, customer support,
and service delivery”. This definition reflect three main
components- service provider, service receiver and the
channels of service delivery (i.e., technology). For example, as
concerned to public e-service, public agencies are the service
provider and citizens as well as businesses are the service
receiver. The channel of service delivery is the third
requirement of e-service. Internet is the main channel of eservice delivery while other classic channels (e.g. telephone,
call center, public kiosk, mobile phone, television) are also
e-Service Definition
• E-Service (or ‘eService’) is a highly generic term, usually
referring to ‘The provision of services via the Internet (the
prefix 'e' standing for ‘electronic’, as it does in many other
usages), thus e-Service may also include e-Commerce,
although it may also include non-commercial services
(online), which is usually provided by the government.’ (Irma
Buntantan & G. David Garson, 2004: 169-170; Muhammad
Rais & Nazariah, 2003: 59, 70-71).
• ‘e-Service constitutes the online services available on the
Internet, whereby a valid transaction of buying and selling
(procurement) is possible, as opposed to the traditional
websites, whereby only descriptive information are
available, and no online transaction is made possible.'
(Jeong, 2007)
The e-Service Maturity Model
From a citizen’s perspective, online interaction with public authorities
typically takes the form of:
 obtaining information from public authorities’ websites
 downloading official forms or sending filled-in forms
Online public services for businesses for interacting with public authorities
are either used for:
 obtaining information
 obtaining forms
 returning filled in forms full electronic case handling
 submitting a proposal in an electronic tender system (eprocurement).
The e-Service Maturity Model
Online public services are therefore differentiated into:
 information services (e.g. obtaining information from authorities
 communication services (e.g. making an appointment online with a
 transaction services (e.g. receiving and sending filled in forms)
The e-Service Maturity Model
Stage 0
The service provider or the administrative responsible level does not have a publicly accessible
website or the publicly accessible website managed by the service provider or by the
administrative responsible level does not qualify for any of the criteria for the stages 1 to 4
Stage 1
Information: online information about the public service - The information necessary to start
the procedure to obtain an environment-related permit is available on a publicly accessible
website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level.
Stage 2
One-way interaction: downloading of forms - The publicly accessible website managed by the
service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the possibility
Stage 3
Two-way interaction: processing of forms, including authentication. The publicly accessible
website managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the
possibility of an electronic intake with an official electronic form to start the procedure to obtain
an environment-related permit.
Stage 4
Transaction: full case handling, decision and delivery/payment. The publicly accessible website
managed by the service provider or by the administrative responsible level offers the possibility
to completely treat the delivery of environment-related permit via the website. Case handling,
decision and delivery of a standard procedure to obtain an environment-related permit can be
treated via the web. No other formal procedure is necessary for the applicant via “paperwork”.
Stage 5
Personalization: pro-active service delivery, automatic service delivery. The proactive service
delivery means that the government pro-actively performs actions to enhance the service
delivery quality and the user friendliness. Examples of pro-activity are: the government warns
the user that action could be required, the government pre-fills data in the application forms
that it already contains in governmental databases to the extent permitted by law. The
automatic service delivery means that the government automatically provides specific services
being social and economic rights for citizens (and business), linked to a certain condition of the
user. There is no need for the user to request the service.
The Service Maturity Model
The EU Service Benchmark
20 basic services are considered: 12 citizen-related, 8 business-related
Public services for citizens
Maximum stage
Income taxes
Job search services
Social security benefits
Personal documents (passports / driver's license)
Car registration
Application for building permission
Declaration to police
Public libraries
Enrolment in higher education
Announcement of moving
Health-related services
The EU Service Benchmark
Public services for businesses
Social contributions for employees
Corporate tax
Registration of a new company
Submission of data to statistical offices
Customs declaration
Environment-related permits
Public procurement
The EU Service Benchmark
The EU Service Benchmark
• The 9th EU Service Benchmark states that service presence
has reached almost 90% in the EU (we need 10 yeasr to
reach such level)
• However take up of e-Service among citizens between 15 –
65 age is less 40%!
Beyond Service Presence
Life event portal
Services that are directly related to the solution of a particular problem
should be linked or integrated in such a way that the customers gain quick
and convenient access to all the services they need in one place, regardless
of the distribution of competences between different public agencies and
Such approach is called a life-event approach since it integrates services,
which are specifically designed around nodes that directly correspond to a
particular life-event (e.g. moving a house, starting a business, getting
married, etc.).
Beyond Service Presence
Life-event portal implementation
all relevant agencies offering the same service in a common manner,
sharing data definitions and at best sharing data, but no technological
integration between the services being offered
services are collected together under a common theme or event. The
services are not inherently integrated, or even with a common look-andfeel, but are grouped in ways that aid discovery and promote the
comprehensive completing of necessary services
services are delivered by a single provider as an agent of other
government agencies. Singular services are offered by the agent and the
integration is hidden from the ‘customer’
services are technologically integrated into a supply-chain application.
This requires the most sophisticated integration work and is not often
Beyond Service Presence
Life-event portal implementation
From the perspective of more horizontal but in reality networked
governance solutions that are the essence of service transformation and
effective security strategies, two main issues need to be addressed:
 how to motivate public managers to share data and, more generally, to work
jointly for the public good; and
 how to understand and overcome the range of barriers, technical,
organisation and legal, but also psychological, social and political, affecting
cross-agency initiatives
Beyond Service Presence
A Case Study: Dubai Life-event portal
Beyond Service Presence
A Case Study: Dubai Life-event portal (www.dubai.ae)
Dubai e-GOVERNANCE has collaborated with government departments
and private sector organisations to create awareness about the latest
innovations in e-Governance and the efficiency of the e-Services being
offered by Dubai e-GOVERNANCE, where e-Services provided by more than
one government department are integrated into customer focused life
A strong, unified base to address the needs of the public through more
than 2,000 electronic services provided by various government departments
in the emirate has been built. Information and services are packaged based
on various life stages of individuals, businesses and visitors. This system
allows portal users to have direct access to services that they require
without having to browse through several web pages
Beyond Service Presence
Web 2.0 Developments
Web 2.0 applications provide decentralised patterns for data submission
and analysis, and provide a platform for the provider-user interaction, in
contrast to non-interactive websites where users can only passively view
A range of opportunities for citizen participation are offered by Web 2.0, a
term that refers to web applications that facilitate interactive information
sharing, interoperability, user-centred design and collaboration. In the
particular context of crisis-response funds and their usage, it is generally
observed that governments lag behind non-governmental actors
Beyond Service Presence
Web 2.0 Developments – A Case Study. Bahrain (www.bahrain.bh)
Beyond Service Presence
Web 2.0 Developments – A Case Study: Bahrain
Bahrain’s e-GOVERNANCE programme has been innovative when it comes
to customer’s centricity. Citizen involvement has been ensured right from
the strategy formulation and continuous feedback has been obtained during
implementation. In continuation to this philosophy, the Bahrain eGOVERNANCE program has embraced the Web 2.0 to reach its customers.
Ministers and senior government officials have established an open door
policy to interact with citizens.
The e-GOVERNANCE program has its presence on social networking sites
such as Facebook and You Tube. In addition, the national portal and ministry
websites provide features such as open forums, blogs, live chats, online
polls, e-newsletters and other interactive services that involve citizens in
government decision making
Beyond Service Presence
Web 2.0 Developments – A Case Study: Bahrain
For instance, two of the ministers and the CEO of the e-GOVERNANCE
Authority have interacted with citizens through such blogs
Citizens’ participation and constructive feedback was recognized and
implemented by changing the national portal and reprioritizing its
objectives, thereby achieving 85 % of customer satisfaction on the eGOVERNANCE programme as per the May 2009 Survey
The Front End – Back End Approach
From a review of recent e-Gov literature it is possible to identify
at least three different approaches to citizen-centered eGovernment:
 the front-end approach, which focus on the interface or the
design of mainly Internet-based applications such as
government portals and other services delivered through
kiosks or mobile devices;
 the back-office approach, where governments place emphasis
on improving or integrating processes to facilitate provision of
citizen services (some times supported by applications such as
CRM, GIS or GRP tools)
The Front end – Back End Approach
 an intermediate approach where governments explore
citizens' needs and develop specific solutions designed to
satisfy some of these needs, including front-end and back-end
applications and strategies
Front End Approach
 The fundamental technical requirements of a robust front-end
system are associated with allowing citizens to interact
seamlessly and smoothly with services provided by
government using different platforms and channels
 Make use of User-Centered Design paradigm considering a
variety of techniques, methods and practices such as surveys,
focus groups, expert reviews and usability testing
Front End Approach
 UCD basic principles:
– Focus on users is to identify and categorize the users; most important
is the interaction between designers, decision makers, and users
throughout the life cycle of information-technology systems
– The concepts of learning and usability should be understood at all
stages of online services development
– There must be a design to improve and evaluate the performance of
the service that will be offered
Back End Approach
 When governments focus on the back-office to increase service delivery
effectiveness, it is common that the efforts include some form of
integration among government offices encompassing both technical and
organizational components to be successful
 The back-office transformation refers to rethinking and redesigning
internal processes and systems based on citizens’ needs. Therefore,
instead of modifying only the interface, back office transformation pays
greater attention to fundamental processes and flows of information that
support any type of government service, even when the service itself
cannot be delivered electronically.
Back End Approach
 One component of some of these efforts in the back office consists of the
adoption of a Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system, which is
a powerful business method that utilizes knowledge about customers to
serve them efficiently and effectively. With this tool, governments will be
able to get information about what citizens expect, besides that, it helps
to optimize population segmentation and enhances the process of
building and maintaining relationships between government and citizens
 A key element of CRM is the continuous communication between
government and society that helps to incorporate new information and
public services to satisfy citizens’ needs. In different countries where
PCRM has been conducted, governments are interested in three variables
related with quality: (1) citizen needs fulfillment, (2) interactive
communications and (3) segmented and personalized services. In general,
society needs are linked to impacts on individual efficiency and citizen
An Intermediate Approach
• Governments need to know citizens’ needs and they should
design and develop systems and applications that truly reflect
those needs and goals, whether they could become online
services or not.
• The intermediate approach includes not only electronic
services, but also services that cannot be delivered online, but
can be supported and improved by using information and
communication technologies in fundamental internal
processes and functions.