End use Energy Efficiency - Renewable Energy India Expo

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ShamKant Mirashi
29.05.2012
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Sustainable Air Conditioning
Why need to pay attention to
end use energy efficiency?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Fossil fuel is finite
Alternative energy is expensive
Predicted high future demand
Demand outstripping the supply already
India has the second highest population
GHG and Co2 emissions.
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Implications for CO2 Emissions
Half of the projected increase in emissions comes from new power
stations, mainly using coal & mainly located in China & India
50
Gt of CO2
40
30
Increase = 14.3 Gt
(55%)
20
10
0
1980
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1990
Coal
2004
2010
Oil
2015
2030
Gas
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Alternative Policy Scenario:
Global Savings in Energy-Related CO2 Emissions
42
Increased nuclear (10%)
Increased renewables (12%)
Power sector efficiency & fuel (13%)
38
Gt of CO2
Reference Scenario
Electricity end-use efficiency (29%)
Fossil-fuel end-use efficiency (36%)
34
Alternative Policy Scenario
30
26
2004
2010
2015
2020
2025
2030
Improved end-use efficiency of electricity & fossil fuels is accounts for
two-thirds of avoided emissions in 2030
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Ways to save energy and reduce
emission
 Use a different way of energy generation rather than fossil




fuel: e.g. by 2030, contributions of reduction from: Renewable
energy (12%), nuclear (10%)
Improve the fuel to energy conversion of fossil fuel.
Improve the loss of energy transmission to end use:
Improve energy efficiency at end-use: potential of
contributing up to 65% of the projected growth reduction
CO2 sequestration (probably not mature enough to be
significant)
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Compounding losses…or savings
so start saving at the downstream
end
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What other countries are doing?
Advanced countries have set ambitious goals. One
scenario studied in Germany is:
a) maintain current level of total energy
consumption while maintaining economic growth,
build no more fossil fuel power stations;
b) phase out existing nuclear stations
c) build renewable to replace
d) improve energy efficiency by 50% by 2050 to
meet new energy needs
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What other countries are doing?
UK: similar consideration. Carbon tax
introduced. Aim to reduce carbon dioxide by
50% by 2050.
USA: Government buildings to save energy of 2%
per year from 2005 to 2015: that is 20% in ten
years.
China: Laws for RE and for EE established in
recent years.
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What is India doing?
INDIA:
Laws for Renewable Energy and Energy
Efficiency established in recent years.
Alternate Energy initiatives like Prime Minister's
solar Mission and Energy efficiency Mission
active
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Are these energy efficiency
targets realistic?
With innovative approaches, and changes in
conventional installation practices, such targets are
realistic.
Cases quoted by Rocky Mountain Institute: over 50%
energy eff. improvement achieved
Case quoted by Scientific America in 9/2006 issue:
factory in Germany 43% improvement.
India : 1000 Crore savings due to energy labeling
programme
Let’s see some examples
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Lighting
 T5 tubes much more energy efficient
 “Plug and enhance” devices now available
 Electronics ballasts incur less loss
 Use of reflective luminaires
 Much of the existing lighting systems could be
retrofitted
 LED lighting finding users
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Use of LED Exit Signs
Conventional Exit Sign
 18W
 2-year service life
LED Exit Sign
 3W
 5-year service life
 Estimated savings:
kWh/annum
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24,800
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Replacement of Incandescent Lamps
Incandescent lamps
Incandescent lamps
CFL
40
9
Total circuital power (W)
1,672
264
Lighting level (lux)
1,300
1,600
Lamp wattage (W)
Estimated Savings
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CFLs
10,000 kWh/annum
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A Novel Air-Con
Exhibition
OR
A Modern Work of Art
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Why focus on HVAC
1. Air conditioning already uses more than 16% of the
2.
3.
4.
5.
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total electrical energy produce in India
Average HVAC system running constantly uses its
capital cost in electricity in just few months.
Typical retrofit ROI is recoverable in less than 24
months.
Reduction in Capex for back up power and
connected switchgear improves the pay back period
Due to High humidity an temperature combination
IAQ improvement cost are extremely high.
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New Idea !!!
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New view points
 Technologies which are India centric
–Alternate refrigerant - Water
 DSM – Demand Side Management
 Alternate approach for comfort cooling
–Divide & Rule
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Building Cooling Technologies
Design
Applications
 Energy efficient air-cooled
1. Heat Recovery Ventilators



a/c system with evaporative
condensing.
Do not excessively oversize
the Cooling systems .
Use Indirect evaporative
cooling for industry
Use Hybrid Air handling
units for commercial
applications
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2.
3.
4.
5.
for CO2 control
Treated Fresh Air Units
Deep Dehumidifiers
Whole House Ambiators
Industrial Two Stage
Ambiators
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Typical Areas for big savings
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9.
Industrial & Power station Control Rooms
Large Buildings Like malls, banquets
High Population buildings Like Multiplexes
High heat buildings Steel aluminum Industry
Large assembly plant like automotive
Large Storage like 3 PL and other warehouses
Independent Bungalows
Educational Institutions
Animal houses
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Benefits
Sustainable cooling
Makes the alternate energy viable
Saves energy for other uses
Improves IAQ
Lowest connected load
Lowest Opex
Lowest maintenance
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56 kW or Just 7.5 kW
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How do we go about it?
1. Set ourselves a vision and devoted to it.
Senior management to lead and provide
support.
2. In the past, we might not have needed a
vision. Now it is a pressing a need
3. Now we should think in terms of
technology, think in longer terms,
4. Think about corporate social
responsibilities.
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Institutional barriers that may
hinder changes and innovation
1. Traditions and established practices and
designs
2. Market structure and conditions may not
encourage adoption of innovative products
3. Habits
4. We need some courage to adopt changes
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Thank You
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