Chapter 5. Associative learning and unlearning

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Chapter 5:
Associative Learning
And
Unlearning
From Mechanisms of Memory, second edition
By J. David Sweatt, Ph.D.
Purkinje Neuron
Chapter 5
Subdivisions of Human Memory
HUMAN MEMORY
DECLARATIVE
(EXPLICIT)
FACTS
NONDECLARATIVE
(IMPLICIT)
EVENTS
PROCEDURAL
(SKILLS AND
HABITS)
PRIMING
SIMPLE
CLASSICAL
CONDITIONING
NONASSOCIATIVE
LEARNING
EMOTIONAL
SKELETAL
RESPONSES MUSCULATURE
MEDIAL
TEMPORAL
LOBE
STRIATUM
NEOCORTEX AMYGDALA
CEREBELLUM
REFLEX
PATHWAYS
Milner B, Squire LR, Kandel ER: "Cognitive neuroscience and the study of memory". Neuron 1998, 20:445-468.
Terminology of Associative Conditioning
Figure 1
Stimulus or
Response Term
Abbreviation
Actual Stimulus
or Response by
the Dog in
Pavlov’s
Experiments
Conditioned
Stimulus
CS
A Ringing Bell
Unconditioned
Stimulus
US
Food
Unconditioned
Response
UR
Salivation
Conditioned
Response
CR
Salivation
Pavlov and one of his Dogs
Figure 2
Nonsocial and Social Fear Learning in Humans
Figure 3
Fear Learning in Human Amygdala
Figure 4
Anatomy of the Fear System
Figure 5
Short-term Memory
Long-term Memory
Working Memory
Action Potential Firing
Sustained Neural Circuit
Activity
Figure 8
Persisting Molecular and
Cellular Changes
Changes in Synaptic
Structure
Anatomical Circuit Alterations
Terje Lomo and Tim Bliss
1969
Figure 6
2003
Long-term Potentiation in the Amygdala
Figure 7
Variations of Fear Conditioning
A.
Cue-plus-contextual
Fear Conditioning
B.
Context Alone Conditioning
TRAINING
CUED TEST
C.
CONTEXTUAL
TEST
Context Discrimination
TEST
TRAINING
TRAINING
CONTEXTUAL
TEST
Context 1
Context 2
Context 1
Principal Circuit of the Amygdala
Tone
CS
A u d itory
C ortex
A ud itory T halamus/
M ed ial G eniculate
N ucleus
L ateral N ucleus of
A mygd ala
T halmic
inputs
C ortical
inputs
Shock U S
C entral
N ucleus
D efensive R esponses
Principal circuit of the Amygdala
Tone
CS
A u d itory
C ortex
A ud itory T halamus/
M ed ial G eniculate
N ucleus
L ateral N ucleus of
A mygd ala
T halmic
inputs
C ortical
inputs
Shock U S
CS
US
C entral
N ucleus
D efensive R esponses
Weak
Strong
CS
Paired
Activity
US
Strong
Strong
Fear Conditioning Results in Poetentiation
Figure 9
Effect of Paired/Unpaired Training on CS
Figure 10
Eye-blink Conditioning in Rabbits
Corneal Air Puff
Elicits Eyeblink Response
Figure 11
Corneal Air Puff
Given with Tone
Tone Given Alone
Elicits Eyeblink Response
Diagram of the Neural Circuit
LTD
Mossy Fibers
Granule Cells
Tone
(Conditioned
Stimulus)
Purkinje Neurons
Parallel Fibers
Climbing Fibers
Purkinje
Cells
Inferior
Olivary Complex
GABA
VIII Nerve
Pontine Nuclei
Nucleus
Interpositus
Red Nucleus
Facial Nerve
Motor Neuron
Eyeblink Response
Figure 12
Trigeminal (V)
Ganglion
Corneal Air Puff
(Unconditioned
Stimulus)
Auditory Cue Reward Learning
Bar Press
=
CUED
Reward
Bar Press
=
No Reward
Figure 13
UNCUED
Diagram of the Limbic Corticostriatal Loop
Figure 14
CS and US Must Touch Each Other
Unmasking of Latent Circuits
Increases Or Decreases in Synaptic
Strength Can Underlie Memory
Honeybee Waggle
Dance
Blue Box 2
Honeybee PER
Blue Box 2
Olfactory Learning in Drosophila-The Fruitfly
Blue Box 3
Olfactory Learning in Drosophila-The Fruitfly
Hermissenda
Image courtesy of Mike Johnson
Pavlovian Conditioning in Hermissenda
Blue Box 4
The Pond Snail Lymnaea
Blue Box 3
A Pigeon in a “Skinner Box”
Blue Box 7
Birdbrains
Species
Pigeon
Chicken (hatchling)
Canaries, Finches
Chickadees, Nutcrackers, Blue Jays
Barn Owls
Crows
Blue Box 8
Behavior
Pecking, bar-pressing
Instinctive bead-pecking
Song learning
Seed caching
Visual system adaptation
Tool making
Type of Learning/Memory
Operant conditioning
Conditioned taste aversion
Declarative memory? Language?
Spatial memory
Motor adaptation learning
Motor learning, instrumental learning
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