IT in Business

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INTRODUCTION
TO
INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
Email: [email protected]
Facebook: masoodahmed.iihe
URL: www.emasood.yolasite.com
Recommended Books
(1) “Information Technology in Business
Principles, Practices and Opportunities”
Second Edition
By James A. Senn
(2) “Management Information System for the Information Age”
4th Edition
By HAAG/CUMMINGS/ MCCUBBERY
Timeline of Technology Evolution
Human history has been shaped by three
dynamic advances or waves of transformation.
1st Wave:
Agricultural
Age
8,000 B.C.
2nd Wave:
Industrial
Age
1750
3rd Wave:
Information
Age
1955
2011
?
Agricultural Age
Agricultural Age begins around 8,000 B.C. and runs through the mid1700s.
This wave is characterized by
trade and basic training-based education,
daily life and traditions organized around the seasons
simple technology with tools made from stone or metal, wood were
made from natural materials.
Agricultural
Age
8,000 B.C.
1750
1955
2011
?
Complex machines evolving from
simple machines
Pulley
Lever
Beginning of the industrial revolution
1712 - Steam Engine
1733 - Flying Shuttle, Automation of Textile
The automation of making
The first steam engine on top of a textiles (fabrics, clothing, etc)
water filled mine shaft and used it marked the beginning of the
industrial revolution.
to pump water out of the mine.
The Industrial Age
The Industrial Age occurs between 1750 and 1950, continuing through to the
mid-1950s. This age is characterized by
 People leaving the farms for work in the cities, mainly in factory
and industry jobs,
 Great advances in the areas of communication and technology
with the invention of the three Ts (Telegraph, Telephone, and
Television) along with the first computers.
Industrial
Age
Agricultural
8,000 B.C.
1750
1955
2011
?
The Information Age
The period in which the majority of workers are involved in the
creation, distribution, and application of information.
It is further characterized by
 Development of a literate workforce,
 Computerization resulting in major changes in business
management and operations.
Informatio
n Age
Agricultural
8,000 B.C.
Industrial
1750
1955
2011
?
The Digital Revolution
J
Information Age/ Digital Age/ Information
Superhighway/ Internet Revolution
“The change from analog
mechanical and
electronic technology
to digital technology
that has taken place
since 1980s.”
Information Technology
Facts
presented in
a meaningful
fashion.
A set of tools that enables
us to work with information
Hardware
•Input devices
•Output devices
•Telecommunication
devices
•Storage devices
Software
•Application software
e.g.MS-office S/W, media
software, business software
•System software e.g.
operating system software,
utility software
Personal Computers
Wireless Networks
Satellites
Cellular technology
videoconferencing
Internet
Information Technology
Technical definition:
“The capability to electronically input, process,
store, output, transmit, and receive data and
information, including text, graphics, sound,
and video, as well as the ability to control
machines of all kinds electronically.”
Information Technology
ITAA Definition:
“The study, design, development,
implementation, support or management of
computer-based information systems,
particularly software applications and
computer hardware."
Components of Information System
PEOPLE
knowledge worker
• A knowledge worker works with and
produces information about a
product.
• When you graduate, you will start
working as a knowledge worker.
EXAMPLES:
• Professionals like teachers, lawyers,
architects, physicians, nurses,
engineers and scientists
Components of Information System
PEOPLE
Who is not knowledge worker?
• The counter attendants at McDonald’s are not
knowledge workers. They enter the details of
your order into a computer terminal. These
details are used by knowledge workers to manage
inventory, order supplies and schedule workers.
Components of Information System
PEOPLE
Telecommuting
• The use of communication
technologies (such as the
Internet), to work in a place other
than a central location.
• Telecommuting is a wonderful
concept for increasing quality of
life and earning opportunities for
otherwise unemployed people.
Information Technology
Embedded Information Technology
“The information technology that is integrated
with the other components of products and
services, giving it new features and
capabilities.”
Embedded Information Technology
At travel agent office
On the aircraft
Autopilot system
EMBEDDED
INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
At the airport
At Hotel
Ease passenger check-in,
baggage handling, onboard services etc.
Maintain traveler’s
preferences, payment
details etc.
Maintain profile of
customers such as
seating requirements,
payment details etc.
At the auto rental agency
Maintain client’s preferred
automobile features
What is Data?
Definition:
“A collection of raw facts that describes
a phenomenon”
Examples
– Current temperature
– Price of a movie rental
– Your age etc.
What Is Information?
Definition:
“Data that has been processed,
manipulated and organised in a way
suitable for human interpretation”
• If you are trying to decide what to wear, the
current temperature is information because
it is logical help to your decision.
What Is Knowledge?
Definition:
“An awareness and understanding of a set of
information and how that information can
be put to the best use.”
• Information adds to the knowledge of the
person receiving it.
Data Vs. Information
•
Data is the raw
material – the input
of information
•
The word information
is derived from Latin
informare which
means "give form to".
CHARACTERISTICS OF USEFUL INFORMATION
For information to be useful, it must be…
•Relevant – -----within the context
•Simple ------- --understandable
•Complete –-- --including all needed
•Accurate – -----error free
•Current – ------not out-dated
•Secure ---------- free of
•Economical –--cost does not exceed
than the value of information
•Timely – -------available when
needed
•Accessible - ---all those who need
the information can get to it
contamination
•Reliable --------results are consistent
Benefits of IT
Benefits of IT
Speed
• Computers can perform complex calculations,
recall stored information, transmit information
from one location to another in a split of a
second.
Consistency
• A computer can perform a task the same way
every time.
Benefits of IT
Precision
• Computers can detect minute differences that
people can not see.
• In automobile manufacturing embedded
computer system helps precise placement of a
part.
Reliability
• Reliability comes with speed, consistency and
precision
MIS
Management
Information System
Management Information System
(MIS)
General definition:
“MIS or simply IS (information system) is a
combination of hardware and software and
telecommunication used to process
information automatically.”
MIS---Examples
• Online bill payment system at a bank
• A support website of a product
• Computer system used to process orders
for a business
Management Information System (MIS)
Technical definition:
“MIS
deals with the planning for,
development, management, and use of
information technology tools to help people
perform all tasks related to information
processing and management.”
COMPONENTS OF MIS
•
•
•
•
•
•
People
Hardware
Software
Procedures
Telecommunication
Database
Components of Information System
PEOPLE
– The components that most influence
the success or failure of information
system.
– People means end users, those who
are using computers .
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Systems Analyst
Programmer
Technician
Engineer
Network Manager
MIS (Manager of Information Systems)
Data entry operator
Components of Information System
HARDWARE
– any of the physical equipment in a system.
Examples include screens, printers, computers,
telephone wires, etc.
SOFTWARE
– a list of instructions that guides the hardware in
the performance of its duties
(Components of Information System)
DATA
• Data are distinct pieces of factual information
used as a basis for reasoning; a fact; a number, a
statement, or a picture, discussion, or calculation
INFORMATION
• The data that have a particular meaning
within a specific context.
Components of Information System
PROCEDURES
– Refers to rules or guidelines people follow
when using software, hardware and data.
– Documented in manuals written by computer
analysts.
– Provided by software/hardware manufacturers
of the product.
– A procedure can be quite complex and
involved, such as performing a backup, shutting
down a system, patching software.
Components of Information System
TELECOMMUNICATION
• Allows computers to connect and to share the
information with other users(computers).
Components of Information System
DATABASE
• A database is a structured collection of records or
data that is stored in a computer system.
• Traditional databases are organized by fields, records, and files.
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