Chapter 7 nationalism and sectionalism

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CHAPTER 7

NATIONALISM AND

SECTIONALISM

Section 1: Industry and Transportation

OBJECTIVES

Summarize the key developments in the transportation revolution of the early 1800s

Analyze the rise of industry in the United States in the early 1800s

Describe some of the leading inventions and industrial developments in the early 1800s

TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION

New methods of transportation and manufacturing goods changed the way people lived and worked

US set on a course of industrialization

TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION

Original 13 states along Atlantic coast

Major settlements along harbors/rivers

Easier to transportation

19 th century

Transportation

 dirt roads carts, wagons, sleighs, stagecoaches pulled by horses or oxen on

IMPROVING THE ROADS

Turnpikes

Roads for which users had to pay a toll

Toll income meant to be used to pay for new roads

Very few turnpikes actually made money

Most failed to lower transportation costs or increase the speed of travel

National Road

Country’s lone decent route made of crushed rock

Extended from Maryland to the Ohio River in 1818

STEAMBOAT GOES COMMERCIAL

Steamboat

1 st major major advancement in transportation

Robert Fulton, the Clermont

Steamboat made travel easier to travel upstream against a current

Used to take 4 months to travel 1,440 miles from New Orleans to Louisville, KY along MS and OH Rivers  steamboat made it in 20 days (1820)  6 days (1838)

Revolutionized transatlantic travel

1850, steamship crossed Atlantic in 10-14 days, compared to 25-50 days for a sailing ship

CANALS BOOM

Canals

2 nd transportation advance of the early 1800s

Nations canal network grew from 100 miles in 1816 to 3,300 miles in 1840

Provided efficient water transportation that linked farms to the expanding cities

Eerie Canal

Best known canal of the era

Completed in 1825

Ran 363 miles across NY state from Lake Eerie to the Hudson River

Before the canal it could cost $100 to ship a ton of freight overland from the

Buffalo City to NYC

The canal lowered that cost to $4

Eerie Canal helped make NYC the nation’s greatest commercial center

City grew

Canal also enhanced the value of farmland in the Great Lakes Region

RAILROADS FURTHER EASE TRANSPORT

Railroads

Most dramatic advance in the 1800s

Technology mostly developed in Great

Britain

Used horses first, then developed steam powered engines

Cost less to build than canals and could scale hills easier

Trains moved faster than ships and carried more weight

Ex. a journey from NYC to Detroit, MI took

28 days by boat in 1800, but in 1857 the same trip took 2 days by train

CHECKPOINT

What were the major developments in transportation between 1800 and 1860

WRITE IT DOWN IN YOUR NOTES

HOMEWORK

For homework, students will make a chart titled “Transportation and Industry” and they will list the causes and effects of each new transportation improvement from 1800-

1860.

TECHNOLOGY SPARKS INDUSTRIAL

GROWTH

Industrial Revolution

Began in Great Britain in 1700s

Machines that were powered by steam or flowing rivers to perform work originally done by hand

Slater

Samuel Slater, skilled worker

 built nation’s 1 st water-powered textile mill in 1793 in Pawtucket,

RI

“Father of the Industrial

Revolution”

Later built more factories

 family system

MASSACHUSETTS INDUSTRY

Francis Cabot Lowell

1811, toured England’s factory towns

After tour, he was able to organize a company

Associates

Boston

1813, Associates built their first mill in Waltham, MA (cloth manufacturer)

1820s, built more factories on Merrimac River and established a new town called Lowell

“Lowell girls”

Young, unmarried girls recruited from neighboring farms

After a few years, mist of the young girls left, got married, and had kids

FACTORY WORK CHANGES LIVES

Machines increased the speed of work and divided labor into many small tasks done by separate workers

Process reduced the amount of skill needed and training required

Factory owners can save money

Machines only make cloth or thread as opposed to final product

Checkpoint:

What changes occurred in the United States with the rise of industry in the early 1800s

Increased the speed and volume of the production of goods such as cloth and shoes. It also reduced the amount of skill and training needed for workers who made those goods. Factories in cities grew because of the rise in industry.

INVENTIONS TRANSFORM INDUSTRY &

AGRICULTURE

Interchangeable parts

Helped make factories more efficient

Eli Whitney introduced the idea

Stop assembling weapons one at a time  manufacture each individual part

Innovation quickens communication

1837, Samuel F.B. Morse invented the electric telegraph  allowed electrical pulses to travel long distances along metal wires as coded signals

MORSE CODE

Agriculture

Remained the largest industry despite new innovations

Only helped farms become more productive and being able to raise larger crops

1815, sold only 1/3 of harvest

1840, steel plow by John Deere and mechanical reaper by Cyrus McCormick

1860, the previous share doubled (partly because of greater fertility of Midwest soil)

QUESTION

What were the key inventions between

1820 and 1860?

The system of interchangeable parts, the sewing machine, the telegraph, the plow, and the reaper

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