Gender and Development

AP Human Geography
Main Idea
 Equality between men and women is a sign of
 In MDC’s, women are more educated, make
more $, and have more decision making
 The opposite is true in LDC’s.
 Nowhere in the world are women statistically
equal to men.
Measuring Gender Equality
Gender-Related Development
Index (GDI)
 Same measures as HDI, but
centered on gender.
 Economic
 Per capita income M vs. F
 Education
 Females in school vs. Males in
 % literate females vs. %
literate males
 Health
 Life ex. of females vs. males
Gender Empowerment
Measure (GEM)
 Measures the ability of
women to participate in the
process of improvement.
 Economic
 Per capita income M vs. F
 % of women professional/
technical jobs
 Political
 % of admin. jobs held by
 % of women in national
Global GDI
Global GEM
Seats in Parliament
Approaches to Development
 To promote development, countries must
choose one of two models:
 Self-Sufficiency
 International Trade
Self-Sufficiency Approach
 Spread investment equally across all sectors
of the economy, in all regions of the country.
Whole country develops slowly but evenly.
Urban and rural develop at same pace.
Reducing poverty more important than
individual wealth.
Promote national businesses through tariffs,
quotas, and subsidies.
Self-Sufficiency Approach:
 India provides a case study of an LDC that
used the SSA for many years.
Difficult to import foreign goods
Heavy taxes (2-3X price)
Subsides provided struggling businesses
financial support.
Made in India
International Trade Approach
 A country identifies unique economic assets.
 Focus on one thing, do it well, and sell to the
Oil, large/ cheap workforce, location
Unequal distribution of wealth, may benefit
By the end of the 20th century, adopted by
most LDC’s
Rostow’s Model
 5 Step Approach to Intl. Development
 1. Traditional Society
 2. Pre-conditions for takeoff
 3. Takeoff
 4. Drive to Maturity
 5. Age of Mass Consumption
International Trade Approach:
 “The Four Asian Dragons”
 Lacked natural resources, focused on
manufacturing electronics, clothing, cars (SK)
 S. Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong
 Arabian Peninsula States
 Profits from oil lead to development
 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman, UAE
 Both groups sell to MDC’s in NA/ Europe
Four Asian Tigers
Made in South Korea
Hong Kong
Seoul, South Korea