Introduction - Dr Ali El

Dr ALI El-Mousa
University of Jordan
Computer Engineering Department
1. History of embedded systems
2. State of the practice
Embedded Systems Markets
3. Definitions & Requirements
4. ....
 From ancient times through the Middle Ages,
and into the 13th century, man, animal, wind and
water power was the driving force behind
hoisting devices.
 By 1850 steam and hydraulic
elevators had been introduced
 in 1852 the invention of the world's
first safety elevator by
Elisha Graves Otis.
 “parachute”
 The first passenger elevator was installed by
Otis in New York in 1857.
After Otis' death in 1861, his sons, Charles and
Norton, built on his heritage, creating Otis
Brothers & Co. in 1867.
 By 1873 over 2,000 Otis elevators were in use in
office buildings, hotels and department stores
across America, and five years later the first Otis
hydraulic passenger elevator was installed.
 The Era of the Skyscraper followed.... and in
1889 Otis revealed the first successful directconnected geared electric elevator machines.
 In 1898 overseas business had added to the
company's growth, and Otis Brothers merged
with 14 other elevator entities to form the Otis
Elevator Company.
 1903: the gearless traction electric
Throughout all these years, Otis innovations in
automatic controls have included:
 the Signal Control System
 Peak Period Control
 1948: the Otis Autotronic System
(first elevators without operators)
 Multiple Zoning.
 Remote elevator
 The control unit has a
webserver included
 Elevators are
 Manual switching
 Electro-mechanical switching
 1965: first electronic switching central office
the 1 ESS
 1980: Digital switching systems:
 Increasing number of services
 New services every 2 years => how to quickly
adapt massive software???
 Switching system is part of “the internet”
The first mass-produced embedded
guidance computer for the Minuteman
missile, released in 1961.
It was built from discrete transistor logic
and had a hard disk for main memory.
When the Minuteman II went into
production in 1966, the D-17 was
replaced with a new computer that was
the first high-volume use of integrated
circuits. This program alone reduced
prices on quad NAND gate ICs from
$1000/each to $3/each, permitting their
use in commercial products.
The crucial design features of the
Minuteman computer were that its
guidance algorithm could be
reprogrammed later in the program, to
make the missile more accurate, and the
computer could also test the missile,
saving cable and connector weight.
 The first recognizably modern embedded system
 developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT
Instrumentation Laboratory.
 Each flight to the moon had two. They ran the
inertial guidance systems of both the command
module and LEM.
 At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance
computer was considered the riskiest item in the
Apollo project.
 The use of the then new monolithic integrated
circuits, to reduce the size and weight, increased
this risk.
 Factory automation
 First Real-Time Operating Systems
 Still alive
 For calculators and other small systems.
 required external memory chips and other
external support logic.
 More powerful microprocessors, such as the
Intel 8080 were developed for military projects,
but also sold for other uses.
 8-bit microprocessors were the norm, but usually
needed external memory chips, and logic for
decoding and input/output.
 prices rapidly fell and more applications adopted
small embedded systems in place of (then more
common) custom logic designs.
 Some of the more visible applications were in
instrumentation and expensive devices
 external system components had been integrated into
the same chip as the processor.
 The result was a dramatic reduction in the size and cost
of embedded systems. Such integrated circuits were
called microcontrollers rather than microprocessors, and
widespread use of embedded systems became feasible.
 As the cost of a microcontroller fell below $1, it became
feasible to replace expensive analog components such
as potentiometers and variable capacitors with digital
electronics controlled by a small microcontroller.
 By the end of the 80s, embedded systems were the
norm rather than the exception for almost all electronics
devices, a trend which has continued since.
 Source:
 CMP survey:
Industrial Automation
Consumer Electronics & Intelligent Homes &
Retail (Thin Clients/POS)
 Scientific & Medical Equipment
 Computer peripherals
Electronic control units in chassis systems
Power train electronics
Body electronics/security systems
Driver Information and in-car entertainment
Safety & vehicle dynamics
Information and computing systems
Automatic & remote diagnosis
Source: INFINEON during SURGE meeting dec 2000
Source: INFINEON during SURGE meeting dec 2000
Source: INFINEON during SURGE meeting dec 2000
Audi AG:
Volkswagen AG:
BMW Group:
Ford Motor Company:
Siemens VDO:
Johnson Controls:
 It includes commercial aircraft, military aircraft,
satellite & radar systems.
 Command & Control & Communications &
 Air-traffic control
 Telemetry
 Avionics & test equipment
 Vehicle simulation
 Automatic test systems
 Missile guidance systems
 Vehicle control systems
 Data Interface Front End Assembly (DIFA)systeem - Alcatel Bell Space
 Dedicated Systems was subcontractor for the
DIFA software
Embraer :
Manufacturing and process control
motion controllers & operator interfaces
Intelligent Homes
HVAC: heating, ventilation and airco
Energy distribution.
Transport infrastructure (route, rail)
Building automation
Construction, mining, oil & gas
Agricultural machinery
Financial systems & Postal systems
Process monitoring
Factory-data collection
Manufacturing test
Quality control
Factory-floor control
Robotics control
Nuclear power plants control & simulation
 Vehicle control systems
(manned or unmanned)
 Vehicle management systems
(intelligent automobiles)
 Vehicle guidance - positioning - localisation
 Route Traffic control
 Baggage handling systems
 Pipeline inspection systems
 ABS, fuel injection, active suspension
DOMus infOrmaTICS
Photolab equipment
Video production & mastering equipment
Audio production & mastering equipment
CD/DVD production & mastering equipment
 Power production
 Nuclear
 Thermal
 Windmills
 Power distribution
Allen Bradley:
Automation Direct:
GE Fanuc:
Klockner Moeller:
Schneider Electric:
Merlin Gerin:
Square D:
 It includes infrastructure, services and end devices.
 Switching systems, PBXs
 Operational support systems, Network planning,
Customer services
 Testing, Monitoring
 Data transmission & protocol conversions
 Network controllers
 Modems, Fax servers, Fire walls
 Interactive voice response systems
 It includes set-top boxes, Internet access
devices, home audio/video, and white goods.
 Video games
 Interactive CD
 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
 Car PC
 Set top boxes
 Cell phones (GSM)
It includes patient monitoring equipment
medical therapy equipment
imaging systems (x-ray, scanners, therapy systems)
diagnostic equipment
imaging equipment
surgical systems
laboratory tests control & acquisition
seismic data acquisition
automatic liquid (&..) analysing systems
life supporting equipment
equipment for the handicapped
oscilloscopes, logic analysers, spectrum analysers,
network analysers
Copy machines
Printing office equipment
Multimedia equipment
Mass storage equipment
Display systems
An extreme variety of application areas.
Each application area has its “habits”.
An increasing amount of money is involved.
Only few engineers worldwide involved
(maximum 200K ?) having influence on our daily
lives of all of us.
 Hardware is important and will produce the
 However – the intelligence in the software is the
sales driver:
smart – smarter – smartest….
 In industry most people are hardware educated
Martin’s statement: “embedded systems = the
world of electronic hobbyists”
 Is it art, technology or science?