EU Policy on Sustainable Access to Feedstocks for Industry and Markets for Biobased Products 1 Structure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Policies Framework “A European Industrial Renaissance” Bioeconomy for Europe Cascading use of Biomass Public Private Partnership for Biobased Industry Industry Policy: Implementation Action for Biobased Products EU and International Standards Public Procurement Standards in Detail: M430 Public Procurement in Detail 2 European Industrial Renaissance Bio-Based Products & Sustainable Availability of Raw Materials Achim Boenke DG Enterprise and Industry Unit - Chemical Industry Brussels, 3rd April 2014 The Policy Context (1) Bioeconomy for Europe Communication COM(2012) 60 final, Brussels, 13.02.2012; http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/pdf/201202_innovating_sustainable_growth.pdf "The Bioeconomy Strategy and its Action Plan aim to pave the way to a more innovative, resource efficient and competitive society that reconciles food security with the sustainable use of renewable resources for industrial purposes, while ensuring environmental protection. The Policy Context (2) European Industrial Renaissance COM(2014) 14/2 final, Brussels, 22/01/2014; http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/initiatives/mission-growth/index_en.htm & http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-42_en.htm?locale=en "These strategic, cross-cutting areas are: advanced manufacturing, key enabling technologies, clean vehicles and transport, bio-based products, construction and raw materials and smart grids." "Bio-based products: granting access to sustainable raw materials at world market prices for the production of bio-based products. This will require the application of the cascade principle in the use of biomass and eliminating any possible distortions in the allocation of biomass for alternative uses that might result from aid and other mechanisms that favour the use of biomass for other purposes (e.g. energy)*." * For a description and interpretation of the cascading principle, see http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/pdf/201202_commision_staff_working.pdf - Commission Staff Working Paper that is accompanying the Commission's Communication on the Bioeconomy Strategy – see pages 25-26, 2nd paragraph in section 22.214.171.124. and http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=//EP//NONSGML+REPORT+A7-2013-0201+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN – European Parliament Opinion on the Commission Communication on the Bioeconomy Strategy – see item 28 on pages 6 & 7. The Policy Context (3) Bioeconomy for Europe Communication COM(2012) 60 final, Brussels, 13.02.2012; http://ec.europa.eu/research/bioeconomy/pdf/201202_innovating_sustainable_growth.pdf Promote the setting up of networks with the required logistics for integrated and diversified biorefineries, demonstration and pilot plants across Europe, including the necessary logistics and supply chains for a cascading use of biomass and waste streams. Start negotiations to establish a research and innovation PPP for bio-based industries at European level (2014 in force). PPP bio industries: Innovation Areas The biobased PPP covers the entire value chain from biomass feedstock cultivation and harvesting / mobilisation to manufacturing of new products and their market penetration. Each step of the value chain faces specific innovation challenges. 7 PPP bio industries: Innovation areas The biobased PPP covers the entire value chain from biomass feedstock cultivation and harvesting / mobilisation to manufacturing of new products and their market penetration. Each step of the value chain faces specific innovation challenges. Industrial Policy Implementation Activities Task Force on Bio-Based Products Otto Linher DG Enterprise and Industry 4th Bioeconomy Core ISG-Meeting Brussels, 24 January 2013 Main Actions • Promotion of an appropriate regulatory and policy framework supporting the market uptake of bio-based products: Recognition of the cascading use of biomass in relevant EUlegislation, i.e. wherever more sustainable, preference should be given to material use of biomass over alternative biofuel use. Other regulatory areas include e.g. public procurement, waste and construction products regulation. Main Actions • Finalising the on-going work on European and international standards on bio-based products: E.g. bio-degradability, bio-based content, recyclability & sustainability; communication & labelling, bio-based solvents, lubricants, polymers, surfactants, etc. Main Actions • Public procurement: Develop lists of product groups; Enter into discussion with networks of public procurers on how preference can be given to bio-based products. These recommendations, focussing e.g. on standardisation and public procurement for biobased products will be elaborated in the follow-up “Expert Group for Biobased Products”. Rather than just mimicking properties of fossil-based products, biobased products should aim for speciﬁc functionalities, taking full advantage of the native properties of biomass and its components. In line with the current trend of major consumer companies to invest in biobased alternatives to achieve their sustainability goals, the PPP will build on existing demand and will also encourage market push measure. 13 Standardization in the bio-based economy • Standards are seen as essential elements in aggregating initial demand, in particular for new bio-based products. Standards for bio-based products can help to increase market transparency by providing common reference methods and requirements in order to verify claims about these products (e.g. bio-degradability, bio-based content, recyclability, sustainability). • Within the framework of the Lead Market Initiative for bio-based products, the European Commission has identified a lack of European standards for these products. • The Commission has issued several standardisation mandates to CEN (European Committee for Standardization): – – – – M/429 for the elaboration of a standardization programme for bio-based products M/430 on bio-polymers and bio-lubricants M/491 on bio-solvents and bio-surfactants M/492 for the development of horizontal standards for bio-based products 15 16 Minimum requirements for "bio-lubricants“ and "bio-based lubricant“ Renewability: Content of renewable raw material 25 % according to ASTM D 6866 (radiocarbon analysis) or equivalent CEN version (to be developed). Biodegradability: ≥ 60 % according to OECD 301 B, C, D or F (or adequate ISO or EN standards) for oils; ≥ 50 % according to OECD 301 B, C, D or F (or adequate ISO or EN Standards) for lubricating greases; 17 Toxicity: Not to be labelled as "Dangerous to the environment" (Symbol N) according to CLP Directive 1272/2008/EC (Classification, Labelling, and Packaging). This may be proven for the fully formulated product by testing according to OECD test no. 201/202/203: EC50/LC50/IC50 > 100mg/l 18 Performance: "Fit for purpose" or "Fit for use". The lubricant manufacturer and the customer using the product both need to ensure that the recommended lubricant is suitable for a specific application; in other words, the appropriate specifications have to be fulfilled, including well-accepted special test procedures for ester-based lubricants. 19 UNILATERAL INDUSTRY SELF-COMMITMENT CONCERNING BIODEGRADABLE AND COMPOSTABLE POLYMER PRODUCTS DEFINITIONS The norm EN 13432 incorporates the definitions of biodegradability and compostability by reference and is recommended for the application of compostable packaging according to the Directive on Packaging and Packaging Waste 94/62/EC. EN 13432 can also be the basis for other compostable plastic products, for instance, catering products, waste bags, hygiene products or semifinished goods. 20 The norm EN 13432 requires that a material/product to be defined biodegradable and compostable has to fulfil the following criteria: • Biodegradation level: >90 % in comparison with cellulose (positive standard) in 180 days under conditions of controlled composting measured through respirometric methods (EN 14046); • Disintegration level: >90 % in 3 months (EN 14045); • Ecotoxicity: Toxicity tests (germination and plant tests) • Chemical testing: according to "product safety" 21 Horizon 2020 Bioeconomy and Public Procurement RRM meeting Brussels, 2 April 2014 Tomasz Calikowski European Commission Directorate-General Research & Innovation Directorate for Bioeconomy Unit F2 Bio-based products and processing 2.4. Sustainable and competitive bio-based industries and bioeconomy WP2014 ISIB call: Innovative, Sustainable and Inclusive Bioeconomy ISIB 7 – 2014: Public procurement networks on innovative biobased products – (Networks of procurers preparing a PPI on biobased products) Specific challenge: By introducing requirements for sustainability in tender specifications, the demand from public authorities could significantly increase the market for bio-based products and drive technological innovation in this area. Scope: Undertake coordination and support activities to investigate the feasibility and prepare the launch of a Public Procurement of Innovation on bio-based products and services. Expected Impact: Lowering barriers and increasing bio-based products market segment. Improving skills of public actors and increasing consumer awareness on bio-based products. Contribute to EU policies such as LMI on bio-based products and Green Public Procurement. PPI – Public Procurement of Innovative Solutions • When – Challenge requires solution which is almost on the market or already on the market in small quantity but not meeting public sector requirements for large scale deployment yet. No R&D involved (R&D already done, or no R&D needed to solve problem) • What – Public sector acts as launching customer / early adopter / first buyer for innovative products and services that are newly arriving on the market (not widely commercially available yet) • How – Public sector acts as facilitator establishing a buyers group with critical mass that triggers industry to scale up its production chain to bring products on the market with desired quality / price ratio within a specific time. After potentially a test / certification / labelling, the buyers group buys a significant volume of solutions.