Nutrition Through the Life Cycle

Bell Work
Jan. 5th
 When do we need to start paying
attention to nutritional needs?
Many health problems are linked to NUTRITION. It would be wise to
know and follow the guidelines of FOOD PYRAMID and dietary
Good nutrition:
1) Resists DISEASE
2) Helps decrease recuperation time
3) Supplies ENERGY!
EXERCISE is important throughout the life cycle.
Proper amounts of FIBER in the diet is directly linked to preventing
many health problems.
Nutritional Needs During Pregnancy
 The diet
can affect both the MOTHER
 If the mom does not eat foods
containing the proper nutrients,
nutrients may be taken from the
mother’s BODY
 FOLATE is needed to prevent neural
tube damage (Brain and Spinal Cord)
and should be taken by women before
they even become pregnant
 The mother will need more
PROTEIN to support the growth of
the fetus, yet most people already eat
enough to support the increased need
 CALCIUM is needed to form bones
 An IRON reserve needs to be built up
before birth, since breast milk is not a rich
source of iron
 The mother should eat an extra glass of
milk and leafy green vegetables each day
 The mother should also take a PRENATAL
vitamin each day, but should consult their
physician 1st
 The mother should not gain more than 2535 lbs, based upon her height and prepregnancy weight
 The mother will need to make sure she
gets enough nutrients to replace those
in the breast milk and she eats enough
to cover the ENERGY needed to
produce the milk
 They will need to drink 2-3 quarts of
liquid a day to provide water for the
breast milk and meet their own fluid
 Don’t drink ALCOHOL or drugs, for
they can be passed to the baby through
the milk
 They will use their IRON reserve, because
breast milk is low in iron.
 If formulas contain iron, the iron is often
difficult to ABOSRB
 By the end of the first year a baby’s weight
will TRIPLE, so it is important to give them
the nutrients they need.
 Newborns need to fed 7 or 8 times a day, by
2 months only 5 times a day.
 They will typically eat a QUART of breast
milk or formula a day.
 Breast milk is recognized as the best food to
foster BRAIN development
 Infants should not be given COW’S milk until they are
a YEAR old, and they should be given whole milk
because they need the FAT for growth and
Children can start eating solid foods around 4-6
months with Rice baby Cereal, due to allergies.
They should be introduced to VEGTABLES next,
followed by FRUIT. Fruit is sweet, so they may like
vegetables less after being introduced to them
Lastly they can be given strained meat and poultry
They should only be introduced to ONE new food at a
time to prevent food allergies
Between 4 and six months they can begin drinking out
of a cup
Parents can add chopped food by one year, if babies’
TEETH appear.
Nutritional Needs of Preschoolers
 Keep the child’s likes and DISLIKES in mind at meal
 They like food s that are MILDLY flavored, soft,
lukewarm, FINGER foods, bright in color, and in small
 Do not FORCE them to eat if they do not want to
 Start with small portions and add more as NEEDED
School Age Children
Serving sizes/portions for children are SMALLER
than adults. Generally, offer children 1
TABLESPOON of a variety of foods per year of age.
Children need a VARIETY of nutrient-dense foods in
small amounts, FREQUENTLY
Be sure they eat Breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
SNACKS can provide added nutrients if they have
trouble eating enough at meals
Expose children to new foods one at a time, not all at
Do not use food as a PUNISHMENT or REWARD
 Children’s taste buds are SENSITIVE.
 Avoid SWEET foods as snacks. Schedule snacks 1 ½ to 2
hours before meals.
 Make foods interesting and inviting for children: COLOR,
texture, shape, size, and temperature.
 Note: The eating habits and attitudes of children usually do
not change in ADULTHOOD.
 Encourage eating a variety of foods from the five food groups
 Encourage the consumption of nutrient-dense foods such as
milk, meat, whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Do not
restrict NUTRIENT- DENSE foods just because they contain
some fat.
Parents should urge kids to eat a good breakfast. Include
low fat milk or yogurt, high fiber bread or cereal, protein
from peanut butter, cheese, lean meat, fruit or 100% fruit
Be careful with soft drinks. CAFFENIE can dull appetite
and may lead to excluding more nutritious food.
Children who drink too JUICE risk gaining weight and
losing their appetite for milk which provides protein,
calcium, and other vital nutrients.
Children under 2 should drink whole milk; children over
2 should drink 1%.
Recommended dietary fiber is 8 grams per day for 3 year
old children to 23 grams per day by 18. Get this by
eating lots of fruits & vegetables and high fiber cereals and
Diets for healthy children should foremost provide
ENERGY and NUTRIENTS to support optimal growth
and development.
 Obesity is common among
 Parents should
 encourage their child to be ACTIVE
 provide healthy snacks
 avoid insisting that they clean their PLATES at
 provide moderate PORTIONS
 allow the child to stop eating when they are FULL
This is a time of great activity and rapid GROWTH
Teenagers need a VARIETY of nutritious foods
throughout the day. Follow the recommended number of
servings from the Food PYRAMID
Girls will need approximately 2,200 calories and boys
need 2,800 calories per day
Many teens do not get enough CALCIUM, iron, vitamin
A and vitamin C due to busy schedules, SKIPPED meals,
and JUNK food.
Nutritious snacks are especially important.
Avoid high sugar and fat SNACK foods.
Monitor amount of CAFFEINE and CARBONATED
 Nutritional HABITS originating in adolescence often persist
into adulthood.
 Obese adolescents often become OBESE adults.
 Remember that fast food meals usually contain more FAT
and SODIUM than home-cooked meals.
 Most common pitfalls in the teen diet:
 Too much fats and oils, salt and caffeine.
 Too many SWEETS.
 Too few fruits and vegetables.
 Too little fiber.
 Not enough IRON.
 Skipping breakfast and/or lunch.
 Eating the WRONG breakfast foods.
Teen Athletes
 Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins all contributes to stored
nutrients that help produce ENERGY
 Muscles are built by EXERCISE and NOT by extra protein.
 High energy output requires more NUTRIENT - DENSE
 Meals should be eaten 3 - 5 hours before an athletic event.
 WATER is essential! This nutrient should be replaced
quickly after participating in athletic activities. 2 cups of
water for every POUND lost is recommended.
 POTASSIUM replacement is recommended by eating
(1) dried fruit;
(2) low-fat milk;
(3) most fruits and vegetables rather than by taking tablets.
 Metabolism SLOWS DOWN. Generally total food
intake needs to be REDUCED
 Due to busy SCEDULES, nutritious meals are replaced
with fast food and snacks.
 It is important to get fruits, vegetables, whole grains,
lean meats, and low-fat dairy, while avoiding foods high
is sugar and fat
 Sedentary lifestyle creates a greater need for daily
 EXERCISING is the key to balancing food intake and
Aging adults have les sensitive TASTE BUDS.
Also, they are less sensitive to SMELLS
Because they are less active they need: (1) less
fat, sodium, and calories in their diet, and (2)
more nutrient-dense foods. Some form of daily
exercise is still important.
Various physical and mental challenges may limit
ability to PURCHASE and PREPARE food.
Elderly who live alone have a harder time eating a
variety of nutritious food.
MALNUTRITION is a concern.
Many health concerns and diseases incident to
aging affects eating habits and food choices.
Food ASSISSTANCE programs are available to
help feed the elderly: Food Stamps, Meals on