By Jennings Michael Burch Jennings Michael Burch of Brewster, New York, was born on April 27, 1941. He died January 15, 2013. He was the son of the late Francis and Rita (Hogan) Burch. He lived in Chappaqua, New York, for 20 years before moving to Brewster, New York, in 1998. Mr. Burch married Susan Elmer on August 24, 1985. He has a son Jeremy Walter Michael Burch, a daughter Kelly Burch Pickow (Ward), and two grandchildren Matthew and Ashley. He was predeceased by his parents and his siblings Joseph, James, John, Jerome, Gene, and Maryanne. Mr. Burch worked as a theater manager for a number of years. He was a New York City Officer for 10 years. He took a leave of absence from the force to join Bob Dylan’s “Rolling Thunder Revue” in 1975. In 1984 he wrote his autobiography, “They Cage the Animals at Night.” He was a devoted Yankee fan and cared deeply for animals. He was especially proud to be an American and expressed a deep love of country. Burch had been working on a sequel titled “It Goes On”. It is unknown if he ever finished the book. Burch was often invited to visit schools and talk about his book, his life, and what he hoped that students would learn through reading about his life experience. Earn 10 points extra credit!!! Watch the video interview at the following web site: http://www.msgvarsity.com/s/5u2 Write a brief paragraph (5 – 7 sentences) summarizing what you learned about the author. This extra credit opportunity is available for one week only – due date_____. In 1900 there were close to 1,000 orphanages throughout the country, housing perhaps 100,000 kids. They sprang up in the early 1800’s as part of an American Institutional building boom. Orphanages were actually misnamed – at any give time, no more than 10 to 20% of the children in orphanages were actual orphans. The institution created the clientele by its admission decisions – kids with tubercular parents, kids with poor parents, kids with dead parents. Conditions varied, but tended not to be good. Many were highly regimented—children marched to meals, which they ate in silence. They wore uniforms and sometimes had their heads shaved. Corporal punishment was common, with inmates routinely beaten across the hands with leather straps. The diet tended to be poor—they were hungry all the time. Orphanages often were dangerous. The mortality rate was not much better than on the streets. Older, bigger, tougher kids preyed mercilessly on younger, smaller inmates. Some orphanages tried to teach children a trade—boys worked in factories, or were trained in plumbing, masonry, bricklaying, steam fitting, and sign painting. Girls worked in sewing rooms. Some children were shipped to the midwest on “orphan trains” to work as indentured slaves (forced labor) on farms in exchange for food and shelter. By the early 1900’s, advocates of abolishing orphanages began to push for keeping children with their parents when possible, and giving the parents aid – child welfare. Children who had to be removed from their families should be cared for by foster families with provisions being made to pay those foster families. By 1920, 40 of the 48 states in the U.S. had enacted child welfare programs. Several historical events fueled the need for assistance with child care, and many orphanages remained open. Orphanages also served as a place for children who were waiting for a foster family. 1929 – 1939 – With The Great Depression, few families were able to care for their own children let alone others who were found homeless. 1939 – 1945 – During WWII many women widowed or husbands disabled and unable to work and care for children. 1948-1949 – Jennings enters an orphanage for the first time.