Overview of Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports

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Overview

of

Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports

Idaho SWPBIS Training Institute

Objectives

Describe the rationale behind a schoolwide approach to behavior support

Outline the general and generic organization of the application of tiered behavioral supports

Outline the organization and direction of this year’s Tier 1 training

Tier One

Getting Started

Overview, Schoolwide, Non-classroom, Data Decisions,

Team Meetings, Team Planning

Expanding Implementation

Classroom, Escalation Cycle, Team Status Check, Team

Planning

Sustaining Efforts

Individual Student, Secondary-group, Team Planning, Longterm Action Planning

Acknowledgements

Students, educators, administrators, school staff, families

Community of researchers, system changers, staff developers

Institute of Education Sciences (IES), Offices of

Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S.

Department of Education

State Department of Education (SDE), Center for

School Improvement & Policy Studies (CSI&PS),

Special Education Statewide Technical Assistance

(SESTA), Project Schools, Northwest PBIS

(NWPBIS)

Purpose:

Examine the features of a proactive systemic approach to preventing and responding to schoolwide discipline problems

Generic Model

Schoolwide PBIS Team

Represents school, meets regularly

Writes plan, trains school employees

Coach

Facilitates meetings

Provides technical assistance to school

Links school to state

State Leadership Team

Guides planning and development

Coordinates training

Comprises school teams/structure

SWPBIS Coaches

Establish a network of highly skilled personnel who have:

Fluency with PBIS systems and practices

Capacity to deliver technical support

Capacity to sustain team efforts

Follow-up training throughout the year includes:

Specialized topics

Communication and problem-solving

Roles & Responsibilities

Please define the roles and responsibilities of:

• administrator

• coach

• team

Positive School Climate

Maximizes academic engagement and achievement

Minimizes rates of rule violating behavior

Encourages acts of respectful and responsible behavior

Organizes school functions to be more efficient, effective, and relevant

Improves supports for students with disabilities and those placed at risk of educational failure

The

Learning Environment

Positive Environment Leads to…

Endorphins in bloodstream, which

Generate feeling of euphoria

Raise pain threshold

Stimulate the frontal lobe so that the situation and learning objective are remembered

Negative Environment Leads to…

Cortisol in bloodstream, which

Raises anxiety level

Shuts down processing of lowpriority information (for example, the lesson objective)

Focuses frontal lobe on the cause of the stress so that the situation is remembered, but not the learning objective

Sousa & Tomlinson, 2011

Which comes first???

Academic problems often precede behavior problems

Behavior problems often precede academic problems

11

Creating a Positive

Learning Environment

Behavior and academic achievement are inextricably linked. A student’s academic success in school is directly related to the student’s attention, engagement, and behavior. The higher the expectation for scholarly behaviors and the better the supports for students experiencing difficulties, whether mild, moderate, or severe

– the more academic success can be achieved.

(Buffman, Mattos, Weber, 2008)

Creating Positive

Learning Environments

Discuss the following questions

1. Does everyone in our school agree on why we are here?

2. Does everyone really believe we can make a difference for all kids?

3. In terms of making a difference, do we have a common schoolwide vision?

4. Are clear and specific schoolwide systems in place to make our vision a reality?

5. Are classroom plans in place that match the schoolwide systems?

6. Are individual student support options in place?

7. Do procedures in the office support the school, classroom, and individual plans?

8. Does every adult talk about these plans openly, regularly, and systematically?

9. Do we know, with measurable evidence, that the plans are making a difference?

10. If our plans are not making a difference, are we willing to try something new?

Idaho’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral

Interventions and Support (PBIS) Framework

Behavioral Systems Academic Systems

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students

Assessment-based

High Intensity

Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response

5-10%

1-5% 1-5%

5-10%

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students

Assessment-based

Intense, durable procedures

Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response

Universal Interventions

All students

Preventive, proactive

80-90%

80-90%

Universal Interventions

All settings, all students

Preventive, proactive

Level of Intensity of Response =

Level of Intensity of Behavior

At the top of the pyramid, this is individualized work. The good news is that if we have developed a solid, positive foundation with the base of the pyramid, we will have more energy and resources to work with this small, challenging group of individuals.

(Hierck, Coleman, Weber, p. 47, 2011)

Response to Intervention

Overview

Emphasis will be placed on the processes, systems, and organizational structures that are needed to enable the accurate adoption, fluent use, and sustained application of these practices.

Emphasis will be placed on the importance of data-based decision-making, evidence-based practices, and on-going staff development and support.

Model of Continuous Improvement

Plan

Act Do

Check

Article Jigsaw Activity

Got it. I know, understand, and/or agree with this.

This is really important or interesting.

I don’t understand this, or this does not make sense to me.

Reduced number of ODRs means:

Returned instructional time

Improved academic outcomes

Reduced number of students receiving highest level of service

Example:

Kennedy Middle School

1500

1200

900

600

300

0

95-96 96-97 97-98

School Years

98-99

21

What does a reduction of 850 ODRs and 25 suspensions mean?

Savings in Administrative Time

ODR = 15 minutes per event

Suspension = 45 minutes per event

13,875 minutes

231 hours

29, 8-hour days

Savings in Student Instructional

Time

ODR = 45 minutes per event

Suspension = 216 minutes per event

43,650 minutes

728 hours

121, 6-hour school days

Idaho Elementary School

Cost Benefit Worksheet

Student Time

Regained:

6840 minutes

114 hours

14 days

Administrator Time

Regained:

2280 minutes

38 hours

5 days

23

Ineffective Responses to

Problem Behavior

“GET TOUGH!” (practices)

“Train and Hope” (systems)

GET TOUGH!”

Clamp down and increase monitoring

Re-re-review rules

Extend continuum and consistency of consequences

Establish “bottom line”

GET TOUGH!”

Negative Side Effects:

Fosters environments of control.

Triggers and reinforces antisocial behavior.

Shifts accountability away from school.

Devalues child-adult relationship.

Weakens relationships between academic and social behavior programming.

Brainstorm your

“GET TOUGH” practices.

Reactive Responses are

Predictable

When we experience aversive situations, we select interventions that produce immediate relief and:

Remove students

Remove ourselves

Modify physical environments

Assign responsibility for change to students and/or others

When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!

Zero tolerance policies

Increased surveillance

Increased suspension and expulsion

In-service training by expert

Alternative programming

A predictable, systemic response, but… based on the erroneous assumption that students:

Are inherently “bad”

Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives”

Will be better tomorrow

Science of behavior has taught us that students:

Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”

Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences

DO learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly and receiving positive feedback

Consequence is NOT synonymous

with punishment

Discipline

Is student focused

Shows students what they have done wrong

Clarifies ownership of the problem

Facilitates problem solving

Seeks resolution and leaves dignity intact

Punishment

Is adult oriented

Requires judgment

Imposes power

Arouses anger and resentment

Invites more conflict

(Hierch, Coleman, & Weber, 2011)

Train and Hope

Approach

1. React to identified problem

2. Select and add practice

3. Hire expert to train practice

4. Expect and hope for implementation

5. Wait for new problem

Positive Behavior Support

PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior with all students.

“EBS” = “PBS” = “PBIS”

What Does PBIS Look Like?

Tier 1

>80% of students can tell you what is expected of them and give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, and acknowledged

Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed behavior

Function-based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior

Data and team-based action planning and implementation are operating

Administrators are active participants

Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students

What Does PBIS Look Like?

Tier 2 & 3

Team-based coordination and problem-solving occurs

Local specialized behavioral capacity is built

Function-based behavior support planning occurs

Person-centered, contextually, and culturally relevant supports are provided

District/regional behavioral capacity is built

Supports are instructionally oriented

SWPBIS practices and systems are linked

School-based comprehensive supports are implemented

PBIS is NOT:

A specific practice or curriculum, but rather a general framework to preventing problem behavior.

Limited to any particular group of students, but rather for all students.

New, but rather is based on a long history of behavioral practices and effective instructional design strategies.

What is PBIS?

What is SWPBIS?

A systems approach for establishing the

social culture and behavioral supports needed for school to be effective learning environments for all students.

Evidence-based features of

SWPBIS:

Prevention

Define and teach positive social expectations.

Acknowledge positive behavior

Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior

On-going collection and use of data for decision making

Continuum of intensive, individual interventions supports

Implementation of the systems that support effective practices

The Impact of SWPBIS:

Reductions:

Students:

Office referrals

Suspensions and expulsions

Referrals to Special

Education

Faculty and Staff:

Faculty absenteeism

Improvements:

Students:

Student engagement

Academic performance

Family involvement

Faculty and Staff:

Consistency across faculty

Classroom management

Faculty retention

Substitute performance/perception

Ratings of faculty “effectiveness

SWPBIS as Prescribed

SWPBIS team drives implementation of practices

Team uses student and staff input to inform the development of high efficiency systems of support for evidence-based practices

Team collects and analyzes data

Team meets monthly to move process forward

SWPBIS as Prescribed

Monthly meetings (while developing first tier)

Program development

Impact and implementation

After first tier of support is established:

Development of advanced tier interventions

Identification of non-responders

Monitor student progress and advanced tier implementation

The challenge is increasing schools’ capacity to:

Respond effectively, efficiently, and relevantly to a range of problem behaviors observed in schools

Adopt, fit, integrate, and sustain research-based behavior practices

Give priority to an unified prevention agenda

Engage in team-based problem-solving

Classroom

Non-classroom

Individual

Student

Adapted from Horner (2009) Cal. State Fullerton, 2009

46

1.

2.

3.

4.

Schoolwide and Classroom-wide

5.

6.

Systems

Identify a common purpose and approach to discipline

Define a clear set of positive expectations and behaviors

Implement procedures for teaching expected behavior

Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior

Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior

Implement procedures for on-going monitoring and evaluation

Effective Classroom Management

Systems

Teach and encourage classroom-wide positive expectations

Teach and encourage classroom routines and cues

Use a ratio of 5 positives to 1 negative adult-student interaction

Supervise actively

Redirect the minor, infrequent behavior errors

Precorrect chronic errors frequently

Increase student engagement through active participation strategies

Specific Setting Systems

Teach and encourage positive expectations and routines

Supervise actively o

All staff: scan, move, interact

Precorrect

Provide positive reinforcement

Individual Student Systems

Support behavioral competence at school and district levels

Tailor function-based behavior support planning

Use team and data-based decision making

Utilize comprehensive person-centered planning and wraparound processes

Deliver secondary social skills and self-management instruction

Implement individualized instructional and curricular accommodations

Science of

Human

Behavior

Systems

Change and

Durability

Local Context and Culture

Prevention

Logic for

All

PBIS Features

Evidence-

Based

Practices

Natural

Implementers

Prevention is…

Decreasing development of new problem behaviors

Preventing increased severity of existing problem behaviors

Eliminating triggers and maintenance of problem behaviors

Teaching, monitoring, and acknowledging prosocial behavior

Using a 3-tiered prevention logic that defines a continuum of support

Designing schoolwide systems for student success

Prevention Logic for All

Decrease

development

of new problem behaviors

Walker et al., 1996

Prevent

worsening of existing problem behaviors

Redesign learning & teaching environments to eliminate

triggers & maintainers

of problem behaviors

Teach, monitor, & acknowledge pro-social behavior

53

Idaho’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral

Interventions and Support (PBIS) Framework

Behavioral Systems Academic Systems

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students

Assessment-based

High Intensity

Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response

5-10%

1-5% 1-5%

5-10%

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Individual Students

Assessment-based

Intense, durable procedures

Targeted Group Interventions

Some students (at-risk)

High efficiency

Rapid response

Universal Interventions

All students

Preventive, proactive

80-90%

80-90%

Universal Interventions

All settings, all students

Preventive, proactive

Audit of Current Practices

TIER 3

List Individualized/Intensive practices provided to a few students for support

TIER 2

List Strategic/Targeted practices provided to some students for support

TIER 1

List Core practices provided to all students and intended to support most

Active Administrative Participation

Actively participate as a member of the leadership team

Establishes PBIS initiative as one of the top three improvement plan priorities

Commits to and invests in a 2-3 year implementation effort

Emphasizes Data-based Evaluation

Conduct self-assessment and action planning

Evaluate self-improvement continuously

Identify strengths and needs

Plan and implement strategic dissemination

Implementation Challenges

Multiple, overlapping, and competing initiatives

Overemphasis on conceptualization, structure, and process

Under-emphasis on data-based decision making

Failure to build competence for accurate and sustained implementation

Reluctance to eliminate practices and systems that are not effective, efficient, and relevant

Low rates of regular positive acknowledgements and celebrations

Brainstorm potential challenges and suggest effective strategies.

Challenges Suggested Strategy

At the end of this year you should feel like…

1. There is room for improvement but we have the basics in place and have a basis for identifying nonresponders.

2. We are teaching desired behaviors to all student in all settings.

3. For the most part, our teachers support implementation

(80%).

4. Our system for supporting the behavior of students is sustainable.

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