An evaluation of communication strategies for scaling-up

Presentation Title:
An evaluation of communication strategies for scaling-up conservation
farming techniques. Case study: Chibombo District, Central Province in
1st Africa Congress on Conservation Agriculture
March 18th – 21st, 2014
By: Eletina Lungu-Jere
Lusaka, Zambia
Email :
Theme :
Building Entrepreneurship and Reliance Farming Systems
Presentation Focus is on Sub Theme 7 : Increasing CA adoption how - innovative
technologies approaches, infrastructure support and polices can drive greater
adoption of conservation agriculture systems in Africa
Presentation Outline
3.Chibombo Case Study :
3.1 Basic Information
3.2 The Objective of the Study
3.3 Scope and Focus
3.4 Methodology of the Study
3.5 Data Analysis
3.6 Findings
3.7 Conclusions and Recommendations
• farmers experiencing hardships due to
decreasing land productivity (1.2 mt/ha to
3.6 mt/ha) .
• the decrease in land productivity is
attributed to soil degradation due to poor
farming systems, assorted with the
massive use of chemical fertilizers for
crop production.
• result : low fertile and fragile soils due to
reduced organic matter and carbon
depletion leading to increased land
desertification and stagnant crop yields
• Soils being acidified due to depletion of
organic matter and compacted soils
hampered by plough pans following
excessive ploughing that impedes both plant
root and soil water penetration.
• Low harvest, food insecurity, poverty and
• In response to these factors : 1980 conservation farming/ conservation
agriculture in was initiated in Zambia.
• Conservation farming is in simple terms implies cropping
using minimum tillage, permanent soil cover and
diversification of crop species grown in sequence.
Advantages : -Reduced soil erosion, better water
infiltration, retention of crop reduces, input application in
permanent planting stations, its cheap and rotating with
nitrogen-fixing crops for fertility restitution to soils.
• Communication is the process of sharing an idea,
information and message with others in a particular time
and space
Basic Information on Chibombo
• Chibombo District is one of the six (6) Districts in Central Province and about 90 Km from
Lusaka it has great potential in agricultural production.
• Agriculture is the main economic activity and ninety per cent (90%) of the District
inhabitants depend on Agriculture for their livelihood.
• The climate condition of the district is typically of agro ecological region II. The district
receives rainfall averaging 800 mm to 1000 mm.
• The climatic conditions are suitable for production of maize, cotton, sunflower, cowpeas,
beans, groundnuts, paprika, soya beans, and tobacco etc
• Several horticultural and vegetable crops, agro forestry tree plants such as Jatropher and
• Chibombo district has about 41,849 small holder farmers; 5,153 medium scale farmers
and 256 commercial farmers mainly concentrated around Chisamba area. Over seventyfive (75%) of crop production in the district is done by small scale farmers.
The Objective of the Study
• To evaluate the communication strategies being used by the MAL and its’
development partners in disseminating information on CF to farmers so as
to influence adoption of the CF technology.
Scope and Focus
• The study was drawn from two farming areas of Chibombo central and
Mwachisopola area
• The source of data was primary and secondary data
• Study was conducted in 2012
• The focus was on the evaluation of the communications tools that the
district offices use to facilitate the process of adoption of CF
Methodology of the Study
• The method used was qualitative (Focus Group Discussions, interviews,
observations etc) and
• Quantitative survey (Questionnaire of sample size -100)
• Sampling Procedure: Adaptors, Dis-adaptors and Non-adaptors
- Good number of respondents were not able to read and write
- Funding to the research was limited and done in a period of three months
- Accommodation limited
Data Analysis:
Data Analysis
The results of the study were drawn from three farmer groups in relation to the
adoption process of communication (Rogers 1962)
Awareness stage
Interest stage
Assessment stage
Trial stage
Adoption stage
1 Adaptors Individual is exposed
to innovation but lack
adequate information
Individual becomes Individual decides
interested and
to apply the idea
seeks for
Individual makes Individual decides
full use of the
to continue with
the technology
2 DisIndividual is exposed
adaptors to the new idea
Individual seeks
information and
Individual apply
the idea fully/
partial/not try
Most individual
will grow few
3 None
adaptors exposed/not exposed
Individual not
interested /puts a
blind eye
continues with
him/herself it does his old system
not work
discontinue with
the idea
Innovation not
Female farmers in Mwachisopola
Dis-adaptor: Researcher with Village
headman - Chipembele
•Low knowledge intake due inadequate information flow among farming
•Low levels of education
•Wide spread farmer settlements
•Poor access to information
•Distant locations of information centres and poor road net work
•Cultural phenomenon of resisting change (lack of appreciation of the social
benefit of conservation farming).
•Lack of adequate political will to promote conservation farming in its totality
•Not all who farm are farmers
Extension officer training farmers in
Extension officer instructing farmers in
Chibombo district
• In conclusion small-holder farmers perceive communication through
practical demonstration.
• To scale up the adoption of CF there is need to develop the rural road
net work.
• The Standard CF manual developed by ZNFU should be translated into
local languages and have more copies distributed.
• NAIS should utilize the audio visual vehicles to create awareness
through public announcements, radio broadcasts and documentaries.
• Raise the education levels of the farmers so that they can have an
interest in print and electronic information
• Open more Community radio stations in rural communities
• MAL should develops a screening method to identify real farmers
from opportunistic farmers
• Government to speed up construction of rural roads so that they are
• Establishment of communication centres
• Government should employee more extension officers
Zikomo-Thank you