Starter Task:
1. Finish your poster (for HW if not enough
class time)
2. Fill out the Fish Reflections Worksheet and
attach it to your poster.
Starter Task
You know oranges grow in Florida (Thanks
Tropicana commercials!) but can oranges grow
in Canada?
Explain your answer.
Agriculture –
The Business of Farming
Learning Objective: To explore another primary
industry - Agriculture.
Activation Task:
Agriculture depends on the
interaction of four natural systems:
1. Climate
2. Soil
3. Biology
4. Topography
Two variables in climate contribute to the
success of farming:
Solar heat
Knowing the amount of heat in an area
helps farmers determine what type of crop
to grow and how long it will take
Amount of heat may be measured in
growing degree-days (GDD)
Farmers also consider the growing season
◦ the number of days during which crops
can ripen
They also consider the frost-free period
◦ the number of days between the last
The second variable farmers
consider is moisture
Farmers need to know not only how
much precipitation they get, but also
how much evapotranspiration
takes place in their location
Warm areas experience more
evaportranspiration than cool areas,
and will therefore require higher
levels of precipitation (or irrigation)
for good plant growth
Soil is a complex substance composed
of minerals, water, air, bacteria, and
humus (decaying organic material such
as leaves, twigs, grass, and pine cones)
Humus is the most important factor
determining a soil’s fertility
The amount of humus is determined by
the amount of moisture and plant growth
Some organisms are highly beneficial to
farming such as earthworms (improves the
movement of air through the soil) and bees
(plant pollination)
Other organisms are highly destructive
(weed and insect pests reduce productivity)
Land features have an effect on agricultural
productivity as well.
Level, well-drained land is generally best for farming
(i.e. Fraser River delta, Annapolis Valley)
Mountainous or hilly areas that tend to lose topsoil
through erosion are less productive
Flat, sandy areas with high water tables are also
less productive because they are too wet for farming
Land is a renewable resource when it
can support new crops year after year,
if properly used.
Land can be classified as a nonrenewable resource because there is
a limited amount of it available,
especially land that is suitable for
federal and provincial governments surveyed parts
of Canada to determine the land’s suitability, or
land capability, for agriculture.
As part of the Canada Land Inventory (CLI), the
survey divided Canada’s land into seven classes to
form a classification system that is helpful in landuse planning.
Canadian Land Inventory
the amount of Class 1 land in all of Canada is less than the size of
New Brunswick (0.5% of Canada’s land surface – 4.2 million
only 11% of Canada’s land surface is capable of agriculture of some
50% of the Class 1 land in Canada is located in Ontario BUT Ontario
also has the greatest degree of urbanization in Canada
There are five major agricultural production sectors in Canada.
grains & oilseeds (wheat, oats, rye, flax seed, canola, soybeans, and corn ) 34%
red meats (beef, hog, veal, lamb) 27%
dairy 12 %
horticulture 9%
poultry and eggs 8%
Horticulture, poultry & eggs, and dairy are all produced with a
domestic orientation – they stay in Canada
Grain and oilseeds & red meat both have a domestic and export
orientation – sometimes they stay and sometimes they go
In 1867, about 82% of Canadians lived in rural
In 2000, almost 80% of Canadians live in urban
areas, and farmers account for about 3% of
Canada’s labour force.
What has caused this staggering change?
In the 1880s, farmers were able to manage only
small farms of about 50 hectare in size
Farm work was accomplished by horses pulling
plows and wagons, and by human muscle power
for most other chores
Today, one or two people can operate a
farm over 200 hectares in size with the
help of modern equipment
Increased mechanization has brought
about an increase in the size of farms
and a decline in their numbers
The type of farming is determined
not only by natural factors such as
soil and climate but also by
economic factors:
Cost and value of land – expensive
farmland means the farmer will
produce products that earn a high
profit. The farmer will use the profit to
pay for the mortgage, or to pay higher
taxes usually associated with land of
higher value
II. Proximity to market – If farms are close to their
markets, farmers will most likely produce perishable
products such as vegetables, milk, and eggs. If they
are far from markets, they will produce less perishable
products such as grain and oilseeds.
III. Competition – If there is an oversupply of a
particular product, its price will drop, and farm
incomes will diminish. The farmer will then choose
to grow another product for which there is a greater
demand and higher returns.
Intensive Farming
◦ In densely populated areas such as ON, PQ
◦ Farms are small because land is so expensive
◦ Requires large investment in equipment and
labour for high profits per hectare
◦ Needs to be processed and transported
Extensive Farming
◦ Where population densities are lower
◦ Land is plentiful and not as costly
◦ The profits per hectare are lower, but the larger
area makes up for this
◦ It requires less workers and is highly
◦ Beef cattle, grain, oil seed
Demonstration Task:
Read page 300.
Answer p. 391 #1, 3, 6, 7
The UMM Game: 5 minutes
Talking points:
Bycatch, Sustainability,
Reasons why the fishing
industry is in Crisis, etc.
Reflection Task:
1. Did I achieve my
learning objective?
1. Can I improve or
should I give myself
a high-five?