SULABH - Weebly

Social transformation - Sanitation
Sulabh International
Caution :
What is MDG - Millennium Development Goal
Millennium Declaration-2000
(Goals and Targets)
Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Goal 4: Reduce child mortality
Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
Millennium Declaration-2000
Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability
 Country used to open defacation,
 Heavy use of dry latrines – turning residential areas into stinking
High Cost of conventional solution
Large population without basic facilities
Cost of implementation $500 Billions - @250 per capita in
developing countries
While we value personal hygiene very much, total apathy to
community health and hygiene.
Many government schemes failed to tackle the issue of sanitation
due to apathy at multiple levels.
Households not having latrines (%age)
 Source – national survey 1998 published in Yojana article
 Rural –
 Assam and Kerala (25% household)
 Andhra, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, MP, Maharashtra, Orissa, UP etc.
(>85% household)
AP-31%, Bihar-45%,Haryana-32%,MP-45%,Orissa-32%....
 High Cost of conventional solution
 Large population without basic facilities
 Cost of implementation $500 Billions - @250 per capita in
developing countries
 Govt focusing only on main stream rivers-Gomti, Sabarmati –
dumping ground for sewerage.
 Poor sanitation main cause for emipemic – and disease like
diarrhoea-660000 children died of this every year.
 Lots of Government committees – Government initiative – directives to state
to convert all bucket based to water based latrines.
 Loan scheme – to fund the implementation
 Loan scheme failed miserably
Apathy by local bodies
No monitoring
People used it for other purposes
VO/NGOs role restrcited to propogation and education
 As a tribute to Gandhiji’s philosophy-a project was launched to free the
society from scavenging - Large scale implementation of low cost solution –
excreta disposal – through two pit pour flush sanitation technology.
 Dr BP actively involved in creating awareness
 Dr Bindeshwari Pathak
 PG Sociology & English
 PhD-Liberation of scavengers through low cost sanitation
 Joined Balmiki Mukti Cell – a cell created as a part of Gandhi
Centenary celebration in Patna.
 Worked as a pracharak-creating awareness
 Was unhappy with slow pace-left the sanstha and started SS
1974 - Bihar
Bihar Govt spent 30 lakhs in improving public sanitation Various local bodies were used to invest, and implemented.
Money got diverted to various bodies
Initiative miserably failed.
 Ara Municipality – initiated public toilet – 2 pilot project –
acceptance came slowly.
 Buxar Municipality followed in 1974
 Sulabh was formally recognized by government as solution
1974 – Working Model in Initial days in Bihar
 House to house contact – and campaign by Sulabh – educating on hazards
of poor sanitation features.
On door step service – for loan documentation – as govt was keen to give
loan to household to build latrines.
Loan sanctioned based on costing norms, no cash to borrower.
House owners provided a guide to supervise the construction done by
Sulabh QC team inspected for quality of construction.
House owners certify the completion
Elimination of human intervention in waste disposal.
Cost $20-500 depending on material, seats,superstructure.
By 1989 – in 15 years 1.8 lakh household- against target of 4 lakh houses –
still a commendable achievement.
SULABH - Vision
 Healthy hygienic India free of practice of defecation in
 A society free of sub human practice of manual
cleaning of human excreta – scavenging
 Improving water supply quality and waste disposal by
implementing low cost solutions adaptable by average
SULABH – Household to Community Complex
 Need for public complexes – Tourists, travellers, transit population is sizable
 Our community latrines –
 Category -1 - Airports, First Class Railway rest rooms
 Privately managed places temples, gurudwaras, mosques,exhibition halls etc.
 Category 2-Public managed locations railway, parks, municipality toilets.
 Sulabh Model-
Govt provides land, construction cost, Sulabh does construction and maintenance
Retrained workers-manage the locations situated in public places.
Pay per use concept, has been accepted at large after initial hiccups.
Depending on traffic - minimum collectible amount per location is fixed. Over and above is
the revenue of staff managing the location. No separate salary structure.
 15-20% budgeted for communication, education, followup, monitoring etc.
 World’s largest toilet-cum-bath complex, Catering to 30,000 people per day-2 acre
complex in Shirdi
1.2 Million private household 2000-2500 avg cost
8000 pay-and-use facility by 2008
180 biogas plants
240 towns scavenging free
 Biogas from human excreta – anaerobic digestion – complete recycling –
biogas production – electricity generation
SIITRAT established in 1994-now SIAES
Research contributions – new technology for composting of biodegradable
Duckweed based waste Water treatment plant
effluent treatment – free of colour, odour,pathogen-natural manure
 Low cost implementation of solution for waste management
SULABH – movement
• Sensitising indians towards healthy sanitation practice
• Self sustaining business model.
• Women empowerment initiatives
• Research institutes
SULABH – challenges for future
• Leadership issues-lack of second line leadership, capacity building
• Diversified activities
• Corporatisation – strategic blueprint, reprioritisation – recalibration
• Scaling up of implementation – funding, infrastructure, capacity,
organization structure
• Knowledge dissemination
• Demand generation – synergy with corporate, local bodies,
India – sanitation challenge
• Hyegenic disposal of - Human waste, Industrial waste, storm water,
household wastes
• Lack of proper disposals - causes many serious diseases and infections.
• Widespread acceptance of low cost solutions – breaking the mental
barriers and misconceived notions – on benefits of low cost treatment