Social transformation - Sanitation Sulabh International Caution : What is MDG - Millennium Development Goal Millennium Declaration-2000 (Goals and Targets) Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 4: Reduce child mortality Goal 5: Improve maternal health Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development Millennium Declaration-2000 Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability Issues-sanitation Country used to open defacation, Heavy use of dry latrines – turning residential areas into stinking slums High Cost of conventional solution Large population without basic facilities Cost of implementation $500 Billions - @250 per capita in developing countries While we value personal hygiene very much, total apathy to community health and hygiene. Many government schemes failed to tackle the issue of sanitation due to apathy at multiple levels. Households not having latrines (%age) Source – national survey 1998 published in Yojana article Rural – Assam and Kerala (25% household) Andhra, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, MP, Maharashtra, Orissa, UP etc. (>85% household) Urban Assam-2% Kerala-5% AP-31%, Bihar-45%,Haryana-32%,MP-45%,Orissa-32%.... Issues High Cost of conventional solution Large population without basic facilities Cost of implementation $500 Billions - @250 per capita in developing countries Govt focusing only on main stream rivers-Gomti, Sabarmati – dumping ground for sewerage. Poor sanitation main cause for emipemic – and disease like diarrhoea-660000 children died of this every year. Patna-1969-70 Lots of Government committees – Government initiative – directives to state to convert all bucket based to water based latrines. Loan scheme – to fund the implementation Loan scheme failed miserably Apathy by local bodies No monitoring People used it for other purposes VO/NGOs role restrcited to propogation and education As a tribute to Gandhiji’s philosophy-a project was launched to free the society from scavenging - Large scale implementation of low cost solution – excreta disposal – through two pit pour flush sanitation technology. Dr BP actively involved in creating awareness Person Dr Bindeshwari Pathak PG Sociology & English PhD-Liberation of scavengers through low cost sanitation solution Joined Balmiki Mukti Cell – a cell created as a part of Gandhi Centenary celebration in Patna. Worked as a pracharak-creating awareness Was unhappy with slow pace-left the sanstha and started SS 1974 - Bihar Bihar Govt spent 30 lakhs in improving public sanitation Various local bodies were used to invest, and implemented. Money got diverted to various bodies Initiative miserably failed. Ara Municipality – initiated public toilet – 2 pilot project – acceptance came slowly. Buxar Municipality followed in 1974 Sulabh was formally recognized by government as solution implementer. 1974 – Working Model in Initial days in Bihar House to house contact – and campaign by Sulabh – educating on hazards of poor sanitation features. On door step service – for loan documentation – as govt was keen to give loan to household to build latrines. Loan sanctioned based on costing norms, no cash to borrower. House owners provided a guide to supervise the construction done by Sulabh Sulabh QC team inspected for quality of construction. House owners certify the completion Elimination of human intervention in waste disposal. Cost $20-500 depending on material, seats,superstructure. By 1989 – in 15 years 1.8 lakh household- against target of 4 lakh houses – still a commendable achievement. SULABH - Vision Healthy hygienic India free of practice of defecation in open. A society free of sub human practice of manual cleaning of human excreta – scavenging Improving water supply quality and waste disposal by implementing low cost solutions adaptable by average household. SULABH – Household to Community Complex Need for public complexes – Tourists, travellers, transit population is sizable Our community latrines – Category -1 - Airports, First Class Railway rest rooms Privately managed places temples, gurudwaras, mosques,exhibition halls etc. Category 2-Public managed locations railway, parks, municipality toilets. Sulabh Model- Govt provides land, construction cost, Sulabh does construction and maintenance Retrained workers-manage the locations situated in public places. Pay per use concept, has been accepted at large after initial hiccups. Depending on traffic - minimum collectible amount per location is fixed. Over and above is the revenue of staff managing the location. No separate salary structure. 15-20% budgeted for communication, education, followup, monitoring etc. World’s largest toilet-cum-bath complex, Catering to 30,000 people per day-2 acre complex in Shirdi SULABH – 2007 - SISSO 1.2 Million private household 2000-2500 avg cost 8000 pay-and-use facility by 2008 180 biogas plants 240 towns scavenging free Biogas from human excreta – anaerobic digestion – complete recycling – biogas production – electricity generation SIITRAT established in 1994-now SIAES Research contributions – new technology for composting of biodegradable Duckweed based waste Water treatment plant effluent treatment – free of colour, odour,pathogen-natural manure Low cost implementation of solution for waste management SULABH – movement • Sensitising indians towards healthy sanitation practice • Self sustaining business model. • Women empowerment initiatives • Research institutes SULABH – challenges for future • Leadership issues-lack of second line leadership, capacity building • Diversified activities • Corporatisation – strategic blueprint, reprioritisation – recalibration • Scaling up of implementation – funding, infrastructure, capacity, organization structure • Knowledge dissemination • Demand generation – synergy with corporate, local bodies, panchayats/municipals India – sanitation challenge • Hyegenic disposal of - Human waste, Industrial waste, storm water, household wastes • Lack of proper disposals - causes many serious diseases and infections. • Widespread acceptance of low cost solutions – breaking the mental barriers and misconceived notions – on benefits of low cost treatment plants.