HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis HUMAN GEOGRAPHY Insert figure 3.1 Chapter 3 Spatial Interaction & Spatial Behavior Photo by Mark Bjelland Human Geography 11e BASES FOR INTERACTION A Summarizing Model (Ullman) Complementarity Depends on effective supply and demand, purchasing power, and transportation Human Geography 11e BASES FOR INTERACTION A Summarizing Model Complementarity For two places to interact, one place must have what another place wants and can secure Effective supply and demand are important considerations for exchange Insert figure 3.3 Human Geography 11e BASES FOR INTERACTION A Summarizing Model Transferability The value of the product must be greater than the cost of transportation Human Geography 11e BASES FOR INTERACTION A Summarizing Model Transferability Acceptable costs of an exchange An expression of the mobility of a commodity and is a function of three interrelated conditions: The characteristics of the product 2. The distance measured in time and money penalties, over which it must be moved 3. The ability of the commodity to bear the cost of movement If the time and money costs of traversing a distance are too great, exchange does not occur. 1. Human Geography 11e BASES FOR INTERACTION A Summarizing Model (cont.) Intervening A Opportunity function of distance N. Dakota oil fields South Carolina vs Wisconsin frac sand? Human Geography 11e BASES FOR INTERACTION A Summarizing Model Intervening Opportunity Complementarity can be effective only in the absence of more attractive alternative sources of supply or demand closer at hand or cheaper Intervening opportunities serve to reduce supply/demand interactions that otherwise might develop between distant complementary areas For reasons of cost and convenience, a purchaser is unlikely to buy identical commodities at a distance when a suitable nearby supply is available QUIZ What is Spatial Interaction? What is Ullman’s summarizing model of spatial interaction used for? Describe the following components of Ullman’s model: Complementarity Transferability Intervening Opportunity ULLMAN’S MODEL OF SPATIAL INTERACTION What is the problem with focusing on “aggregate, not individual” behavior when modeling spatial interaction? Human Geography 11e BASES FOR INTERACTION (CONT.) Measuring Interaction Distance Decay The Gravity Concept Interaction Potential Movement Biases BASES FOR INTERACTION (CONT.) Measuring Interaction Friction of Distance Distance has a retarding effect on human interaction because there are increasing penalties in time and cost associated with longer distance, more expensive interchanges The “friction of distance” is reduced by lower costs. Geographically speaking, what effect did the automobile have on the United States? Distance Decay The decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin. Human Geography 10e Study Guide WHAT IS THE INVERSE SQUARE RELATIONSHIP? The volume of interaction (flow) between two points is inversely related to the square of the distance separating them. So…volume of flow between two places 50 miles apart would probably be only ¼ of that between places 25 miles apart. Study Guide WHY IS THE INVERSE SQUARE RELATIONSHIP DIFFICULT TO APPLY TO HUMAN SPATIAL INTERACTION? The problem is that distance is only one factor of transferability…What other factors influence our decisions? Cost…Time…Perception…? BASES FOR INTERACTION (CONT.) Measuring Interaction The Gravity Concept The physical laws of gravity and motion developed by Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) are applicable to aggregate actions of humans A large city is more likely to attract an individual than is a small hamlet…More opportunity (real and perceived) Chapter 3 Study Guide HOW DOES THE GRAVITY MODEL DIFFER FROM ULLMANS MODEL OF SPATIAL INTERACTION? HOW IS REILLY’S LAW OF RETAIL GRAVITATION RELATED TO THE GRAVITY MODEL? BASES FOR INTERACTION (CONT.) Measuring Interaction (cont.) Movement Bias…Or “If you build it, they will come”…”Anchor chains/Stores”/ Mall of America? Predictable flows making some centers more attractive to merchants and customers (google earth) Study Guide WHAT PROBLEM WITH DISTANCE DECAY AND GRAVITATIONAL PULL MODELS DOES THE POTENTIAL MODEL ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS? BASES FOR INTERACTION (CONT.) Distance Bias - “distance decay” favoring short interactions over long ones Direction Bias – East/West Bias in the US (google earth Hwy map Network Bias – movement along existing networks/routes – self-reinforcing mechanism. Where would you site a new restaurant in the Chippewa Valley? HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR Mobility vs. Migration Circulation mobility Daily/temporary use of space for travel/work/school/ commerce etc. Migration mobility (Permanent relocation) Individual Activity Space Territoriality Varies by culture Activity space is determined by: Stage in life Mobility (economic) Opportunity – availability of nearby resources Human Geography 11e HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR The Tyranny of Time Space-Time Prism  Illustrates geog. Limits bound by time What effect did modern transportation have on the space-time prism? Information technology? Distance and Human Interaction Critical Distance [fig3.12, 66] Examples of the “frictionless zone”? Human Geography 10e Study Guide HOW IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE WITHIN A COUNTRY RELATED TO THE CONCEPT OF THE SPACE TIME PRISM? HOW/WHY DOES THE TYRANNY OF TIME AFFECT WOMEN MORE THAN MEN? Human Geography 11e HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR Spatial Interaction and the Accumulation of Information Critical Distance: Does critical distance vary with different activities? Information Flows Implications of instantaneous information flow? [work, education, cities, governments, culture] Figurative impact on critical distance? Human Geography 11e HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR Information and Perception Our place perceptions are based on our sense of place – our “perceptions of reality” Are those perceptions always accurate? Human Geography 10e The Peters Projection Map from Two Perspectives: In 1974, as an effort to reduce the political bias of conventional maps, Arno Peters created the 'Peters Projection' of the world so that one square inch anywhere on the map represents an equal number of square miles of the earth's surface. Human Geography 11e HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR Information and Perception (cont.) Perception of Environment…Again tied to Relph’s “sense of place” Perception of Natural Hazards Diminished by our sense of place “Diminished” by necessity Flooding in Bangladesh Human Geography 11e HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR REVIEW Video Lessons: Spatial Interaction Quizlet: Fellmann Ch. 3 Human Spatial Behavior Video Clips: China Infrastructure Spending 60 Minutes: America’s Crumbling Infrastructure Article Jigsaw Activity Focus on: 1. Spatial interactions (both stated and implied) 2. Four-Level Analysis (1)Local, (2)State or regional, (3)National, (4)global Power of Place: Spatial interaction in a megalopolis For Thursday: Complete Power of place disc. Questions and Annual Editions Reading and Critical Thinking MIGRATION Human Geography 11e MIGRATION CHART Principal Migration Patterns Intercontinental A reflection of massive intercontinental flows Intracontinental Movements between countries Interregional Movements within countries Rural-to-Urban Migration Vid Intro Human Geography 11e MIGRATION Principal Migration Patterns Rural-to-Urban Movements of peoples from agricultural areas to cities; prominent during the industrial revolution Rapid increase in impoverished rural populations put increasing and unsustainable pressures on land, fuel, and water in the countryside Human Geography 11e TYPES OF MIGRATION Insert figure 3.25 Forced The relocation decision is made solely by people other than the migrants themselves Reluctant Slaves were forcibly transferred to the Americas Convicts transported to other continents Communist relocations (USSR) Immigrants expelled (Uganda) Forced repatriation of foreign nationals Less than fully voluntary Aggressive governmental relocation campaigns (Indonesia) Human Geography 11e TYPES OF MIGRATION Voluntary The great majority of migratory movements are voluntary Migrants believe that their opportunities and life circumstances will be better at their destination than they are at their present location. Involuntary Human Geography 11e CONTROLS ON MIGRATION Push & Pull Factors Push factors are negative home conditions that impel the decision to migrate They might include loss of job, lack of professional opportunity, overcrowding or slum clearance, or a variety of other influences Pull factors are the presumed positive attractions of the migration destination All the attractive attributes perceived to exist at the new location: safety, and food, perhaps, or job opportunities, better climate, lower taxes, more room, and so forth Power of Place 21 CONTROLS ON MIGRATION Place Utility Top Ten The measure of an individual’s satisfaction with a given residential location Step Migration Place transition Rural to central city A series of less extreme locational changes From farm to small town to suburb, and finally to the major central city itself Forced Migration in China Chain Migration The mover is part of an established migrant flow from a common origin to a prepared destination An advance group of migrants is followed by second and subsequent migrations originating in the same home district and frequently united by kinship or friendship ties Hmong Counter Migration Not all immigrants stay permanently at their first destination Return migration Back to Syria Human Geography 11e CONTROLS ON MIGRATION Channelized Migration Areas that are in some way tied to one another by past migrations, by economic trade considerations, or some other affinity Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration Most migrants go only a short distance Longer-distance migration favors big cities Most migration proceeds step-by-step Most migration is rural to urban Most migrants are adults and males MIGRATION FIELDS Human Geography 11e Insert figure 3.29 Homework For Friday READ KUBY PP. 88-98 VIEW POWER POINT ON ASSIGNMENT PAGE Human Geography 10e KUBY EVALUATION 4.1 What were the extreme values? Why were these states over/underestimated by the gravity model? 4.2 In general, how did the gravity model fare? Do the predictions hold up? Human Geography 10e KUBY EVALUATION 4.3 How is distance a deterrent to migration? Distance acts as a deterrent to migration in several ways: cost, information, and intervening opportunities. The farther apart two places are, the more expensive it is to move between them. Also, people are unlikely to move to a place they know nothing about, and they tend to know less about distant places than about those nearby places. And finally, the farther apart two places are the greater the likelihood of intervening opportunities. Human Geography 10e KUBY EVALUATION 4.4 Justify the use of population as the numerator in the gravity model. Can you suggest a variable that might be preferable to population as a measure of the sending power of a state or province? Population is justified in the gravity model because the more people live in a state, the more potential migrants there are. If distance were held constant, one would expect migration to be proportional to the population of a state. However, a better measure of the “sending power” of a state would take into account not only how many people live in a state, but also what kinds of people are most likely to move. Therefore, there might be a higher weighting on young adults and highly educated people who move more frequently than others…other factors?? Human Geography 10e KUBY EVALUATION 4.5 Along the 45* = an accurate prediction * For points below the line, actual migration is greater than predicted migration, the gravity model predictions underestimate migration, and residuals (actual – predicted migration) are positive. * For points above the line, predicted migration is larger than actual migration, the gravity model predictions overestimate migration, and residuals are negative. Human Geography 10e KUBY EVALUATION 4.6 Groups of states that are over or under predicted? * possible explanations? 4.7 Other variables that we might use to reduce those residuals identified in 4.6? * Economic? * Age? * Gender? * Climate?