Chapter 3 - Bloomer School District

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HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
Jerome D. Fellmann
Mark Bjelland
Arthur Getis
Judith Getis
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
Insert figure 3.1
Chapter 3
Spatial Interaction
&
Spatial Behavior
Photo by Mark Bjelland
Human Geography 11e
BASES FOR INTERACTION

A Summarizing Model (Ullman)
 Complementarity
 Depends
on effective supply and demand,
purchasing power, and transportation
Human Geography 11e
BASES FOR INTERACTION

A Summarizing Model

Complementarity
 For
two places to
interact, one place must
have what another place
wants and can secure
 Effective supply and
demand are important
considerations for
exchange
Insert figure 3.3
Human Geography 11e
BASES FOR INTERACTION

A Summarizing Model
 Transferability
 The
value of the product must be greater than the
cost of transportation
Human Geography 11e
BASES FOR INTERACTION

A Summarizing Model

Transferability
 Acceptable
costs of an exchange
 An expression of the mobility of a commodity and is a
function of three interrelated conditions:
The characteristics of the product
2. The distance measured in time and money penalties,
over which it must be moved
3. The ability of the commodity to bear the cost of
movement
 If the time and money costs of traversing a distance are
too great, exchange does not occur.
1.
Human Geography 11e
BASES FOR INTERACTION

A Summarizing Model (cont.)
 Intervening
A
Opportunity
function of distance

N. Dakota oil fields

South Carolina vs Wisconsin frac sand?
Human Geography 11e
BASES FOR INTERACTION

A Summarizing Model

Intervening Opportunity
 Complementarity
can be effective only in the absence
of more attractive alternative sources of supply or
demand closer at hand or cheaper
 Intervening opportunities serve to reduce
supply/demand interactions that otherwise might
develop between distant complementary areas
 For reasons of cost and convenience, a purchaser is
unlikely to buy identical commodities at a distance
when a suitable nearby supply is available
QUIZ
What is Spatial Interaction?
 What is Ullman’s summarizing model of spatial
interaction used for?
 Describe the following components of Ullman’s
model:

 Complementarity
 Transferability
 Intervening
Opportunity
ULLMAN’S MODEL OF SPATIAL INTERACTION

What is the problem with focusing on
“aggregate, not individual” behavior when
modeling spatial interaction?
Human Geography 11e
BASES FOR INTERACTION
(CONT.)

Measuring Interaction
 Distance
Decay
 The Gravity Concept
 Interaction Potential
 Movement Biases
BASES FOR INTERACTION
(CONT.)

Measuring Interaction

Friction of Distance
 Distance has a retarding effect on human interaction
because there are increasing penalties in time and cost
associated with longer distance, more expensive
interchanges
The “friction of distance” is reduced by lower costs.
Geographically speaking, what effect did the automobile have
on the United States?

Distance Decay
The decline of an activity or
function with increasing distance
from its point of origin.
Human Geography 10e
Study Guide
WHAT IS THE INVERSE SQUARE RELATIONSHIP?
The volume of interaction (flow) between two points is inversely
related to the square of the distance separating them.
So…volume of flow between two places 50 miles apart would
probably be only ¼ of that between places 25 miles apart.
Study Guide
WHY IS THE INVERSE SQUARE RELATIONSHIP
DIFFICULT TO APPLY TO HUMAN SPATIAL
INTERACTION?
The problem is that distance is only one factor of
transferability…What other factors influence our decisions?
Cost…Time…Perception…?
BASES FOR INTERACTION
(CONT.)

Measuring Interaction

The Gravity Concept
 The physical laws of gravity and motion developed by Sir
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) are applicable to aggregate
actions of humans
 A large city is more likely to attract an individual than is a
small hamlet…More opportunity (real and perceived)
Chapter 3
Study Guide
HOW DOES THE GRAVITY MODEL DIFFER FROM
ULLMANS MODEL OF SPATIAL INTERACTION?
HOW IS REILLY’S LAW OF RETAIL GRAVITATION
RELATED TO THE GRAVITY MODEL?
BASES FOR INTERACTION
(CONT.)

Measuring Interaction (cont.)

Movement Bias…Or “If you build it, they will come”…”Anchor
chains/Stores”/ Mall of America?
 Predictable flows making some centers more attractive
to merchants and customers (google earth)
Study Guide
WHAT PROBLEM WITH DISTANCE DECAY AND
GRAVITATIONAL PULL MODELS DOES THE
POTENTIAL MODEL ATTEMPT TO ADDRESS?
BASES FOR INTERACTION
(CONT.)
 Distance
Bias - “distance decay” favoring short
interactions over long ones
 Direction
Bias – East/West Bias in the US (google
earth Hwy map
 Network
Bias – movement along existing
networks/routes – self-reinforcing
mechanism. Where would you site
a new restaurant in the Chippewa
Valley?
HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR

Mobility vs. Migration

Circulation mobility



Daily/temporary use of space for travel/work/school/ commerce etc.
Migration mobility (Permanent relocation)
Individual Activity Space

Territoriality

Varies by culture
Activity space is
determined by:



Stage in life
Mobility (economic)
Opportunity

– availability of nearby
resources
Human Geography 11e
HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR

The Tyranny of Time

Space-Time Prism [65]

Illustrates geog. Limits bound by time


What effect did modern transportation have on the space-time prism? Information technology?
Distance and Human Interaction

Critical Distance [fig3.12, 66]

Examples of the “frictionless zone”?
Human Geography 10e
Study Guide
HOW IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF
INFRASTRUCTURE WITHIN A COUNTRY RELATED
TO THE CONCEPT OF THE SPACE TIME PRISM?
HOW/WHY DOES THE TYRANNY OF TIME AFFECT
WOMEN MORE THAN MEN?
Human Geography 11e
HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR


Spatial Interaction and the Accumulation of Information
Critical Distance: Does critical distance vary with different
activities?

Information Flows


Implications of instantaneous information flow? [work, education, cities,
governments, culture]
Figurative impact on critical distance?
Human Geography 11e
HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR
Information and Perception

Our place perceptions are based on our sense of place – our
“perceptions of reality”

Are those perceptions always accurate?
Human Geography 10e
The Peters Projection Map from
Two Perspectives: In 1974, as
an effort to reduce the political
bias of conventional maps, Arno
Peters created the 'Peters
Projection' of the world so that
one square inch anywhere on
the map represents an equal
number of square miles of the
earth's surface.
Human Geography 11e
HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR

Information and Perception (cont.)

Perception of Environment…Again tied to Relph’s “sense of place”

Perception of Natural Hazards
Diminished by our sense of place
 “Diminished” by necessity
Flooding in Bangladesh

Human Geography 11e
HUMAN SPATIAL BEHAVIOR REVIEW
Video Lessons: Spatial Interaction
Quizlet: Fellmann Ch. 3
Human Spatial Behavior
Video Clips: China Infrastructure Spending
60 Minutes: America’s Crumbling Infrastructure
Article Jigsaw Activity
Focus on: 1. Spatial interactions (both stated and implied)
2. Four-Level Analysis
(1)Local, (2)State or regional, (3)National, (4)global
Power of Place: Spatial interaction in a megalopolis
For Thursday: Complete Power of place disc. Questions and Annual Editions
Reading and Critical Thinking
MIGRATION
Human Geography 11e
MIGRATION CHART

Principal Migration Patterns

Intercontinental
 A reflection of massive intercontinental flows
Intracontinental
 Movements between countries
Interregional
 Movements within countries
Rural-to-Urban

Migration Vid Intro



Human Geography 11e
MIGRATION

Principal Migration Patterns

Rural-to-Urban
 Movements of peoples from agricultural areas to
cities; prominent during the industrial revolution
 Rapid increase in impoverished rural populations put
increasing and unsustainable pressures on land, fuel,
and water in the countryside
Human Geography 11e
TYPES OF MIGRATION
Insert figure 3.25

Forced

The relocation decision is made solely by people other than the migrants themselves





Reluctant

Slaves were forcibly transferred to the Americas
Convicts transported to other continents
Communist relocations (USSR)
Immigrants expelled (Uganda)
Forced repatriation of foreign nationals
Less than fully voluntary

Aggressive governmental relocation campaigns (Indonesia)
Human Geography 11e
TYPES OF MIGRATION

Voluntary



The great majority of migratory movements are
voluntary
Migrants believe that their opportunities and life
circumstances will be better at their destination than
they are at their present location.
Involuntary
Human Geography 11e
CONTROLS ON MIGRATION
Push & Pull Factors

Push factors are negative home conditions that impel the
decision to migrate


They might include loss of job, lack of professional opportunity,
overcrowding or slum clearance, or a variety of other influences
Pull factors are the presumed positive attractions of the
migration destination

All the attractive attributes perceived to exist at the new location:
safety, and food, perhaps, or job opportunities, better climate,
lower taxes, more room, and so forth

Power of Place 21
CONTROLS ON MIGRATION

Place Utility Top Ten



The measure of an individual’s
satisfaction with a given
residential location

Step Migration




Place transition
Rural to central city
A series of less extreme
locational changes
From farm to small town to
suburb, and finally to the major
central city itself
Forced Migration in China
Chain Migration


The mover is part of an
established migrant flow from a
common origin to a prepared
destination
An advance group of migrants is
followed by second and
subsequent migrations
originating in the same home
district and frequently united by
kinship or friendship ties
Hmong
Counter Migration


Not all immigrants stay
permanently at their first
destination
Return migration Back to Syria
Human Geography 11e
CONTROLS ON MIGRATION

Channelized Migration


Areas that are in some way tied to one another by past
migrations, by economic trade considerations, or some
other affinity
Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration





Most migrants go only a short distance
Longer-distance migration favors big cities
Most migration proceeds step-by-step
Most migration is rural to urban
Most migrants are adults and males
MIGRATION FIELDS
Human Geography 11e
Insert figure 3.29
Homework For Friday
READ KUBY PP. 88-98
VIEW POWER POINT ON ASSIGNMENT PAGE
Human Geography 10e
KUBY EVALUATION

4.1 What were the extreme values? Why were
these states over/underestimated by the
gravity model?

4.2 In general, how did the gravity model fare?
Do the predictions hold up?
Human Geography 10e
KUBY EVALUATION
4.3 How is distance a deterrent to migration?
Distance acts as a deterrent to migration in several ways: cost, information, and
intervening opportunities.
The farther apart two places are, the more expensive it is to move between them. Also,
people are unlikely to move to a place they know nothing about, and they tend to know
less about distant places than about those nearby places. And finally, the farther apart
two places are the greater the likelihood of intervening opportunities.
Human Geography 10e
KUBY EVALUATION
4.4 Justify the use of population as the numerator in the gravity model. Can
you suggest a variable that might be preferable to population as a measure of
the sending power of a state or province?
Population is justified in the gravity model because the more people live in a state, the
more potential migrants there are. If distance were held constant, one would expect
migration to be proportional to the population of a state.
However, a better measure of the “sending power” of a state would take into account
not only how many people live in a state, but also what kinds of people are most likely to
move. Therefore, there might be a higher weighting on young adults and highly educated
people who move more frequently than others…other factors??
Human Geography 10e
KUBY EVALUATION
4.5 Along the 45* = an accurate prediction
* For points below the line, actual migration is greater than
predicted
migration, the gravity model predictions
underestimate migration, and
residuals (actual – predicted
migration) are positive.
* For points above the line, predicted migration is larger than actual migration,
the gravity model predictions overestimate
migration, and residuals are
negative.
Human Geography 10e
KUBY EVALUATION
4.6 Groups of states that are over or under predicted?
* possible explanations?
4.7 Other variables that we might use to reduce those residuals identified
in 4.6?
* Economic?
* Age?
* Gender?
* Climate?
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