4.2 Penny Kneebone – Harley O`Hagan

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21

st

Annual Conference

Living with Lead:

Environmental Management of

Active Small Arms Ranges

Harley O’Hagan, NZ Defence Force

Penny Kneebone, Tonkin & Taylor Ltd

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Overview

• New Zealand Defence Force (Army, Navy, Air Force)

– Joint Logistics & Support Organisation (JLSO)

• Property Group

– Environmental Services (8 civilian staff)

• NZDF’s issues

– 87,000ha estate

– Sustainable land management

– Services for Camps/Bases (water, waste, heat, etc)

– Statutory planning

– Consents & compliance

– Environmental education

• Contaminated sites

PASSION FOR PERFORMANCE THROUGH CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAMWORK TECHNOLOGY LEADING CHANGE OUR PEOPLE COMMUNICATION INNOVATION

PASSION FOR PERFORMANCE THROUGH CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAMWORK TECHNOLOGY LEADING CHANGE OUR PEOPLE COMMUNICATION INNOVATION

Small arms ranges

• Hand held firearms

• Lead, copper, zinc, nickel, antimony

• Ongoing source of contamination

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Typical layout

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PASSION FOR PERFORMANCE THROUGH CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAMWORK TECHNOLOGY LEADING CHANGE OUR PEOPLE COMMUNICATION INNOVATION

PASSION FOR PERFORMANCE THROUGH CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAMWORK TECHNOLOGY LEADING CHANGE OUR PEOPLE COMMUNICATION INNOVATION

Contamination at Ranges

• Typical metal concentrations in stop butt sand (mg/kg)

Metal

Lead

Copper

Zinc

Antimony

Nickel

Stop butt concentrations

2,000-30,000

30-10,000

60-1,000

10-1,000

10-20

Background

(ANZECC 1992)

<2-200

1-190

2-180

4-44

2-400

Commercial

(NEPM 1999)

1,500

5,000

35,000

-

3,000

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NZDF’s small arms ranges

• 29 ranges

• Coastal to central plateau

• Various types, environmental settings

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Approach to management

• Range similarities: overarching guideline

• Differences: individual, sitespecific plans

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Guideline document

• Review international best practice

• Overview environmental issues and management practices

• Risk

• Containment nearby residents

Ingestion

& contact aquatic organisms in surface water & sediment

Vegetation, grazing animals dust

SURFACE WATER

Erosion to surface water & sediment range users, maintenance workers

RANGE FLOOR

STOP BUTT

Leaching to groundwater

Transport in groundwater to wells or surface water

GROUNDWATER

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Containment

• Stop butts

• Operational controls

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Erosion control

• Maintaining stable slopes

• Minimising divots

• Vegetated riparian buffer strips

• Particle size distribution

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Stormwater and drainage

• Cut off drains

• Sedimentation basins

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Source control

• Screening for safety

• Small particles prone to leaching and transport

• Best to contain source, rather than treat it

• On-site disposal in engineered cells

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Site specific plans

• Practical, user friendly, easy to read, minimise paperwork

• Non-scientific language

• Photographs and pictures

• Clear, prescriptive instructions

• Use existing maintenance systems

• Consultation with users

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Home Valley Range upgrade

• Waiouru Stream

• Safety concerns

• Frost heave

• High intensity use

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Solutions implemented

• Stop butts for containment

• Free draining

• Stormwater diversion

• Collecting under-drainage

• Capped stockpile

• Culverting

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Conclusions

• Ongoing source of metals contamination

• Proactive approach - internal management Guidelines

• Stakeholder consultation

• Integrate with existing maintenance

• Contain contamination, minimise amount of material generated

• Environmentally sustainable design simplifies effective management of contamination

PASSION FOR PERFORMANCE THROUGH CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAMWORK TECHNOLOGY LEADING CHANGE OUR PEOPLE COMMUNICATION INNOVATION

21

st

Annual Conference

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