Crude death rate:
Crude birth rate:
Rate of Natural Increase: 13.17
Infant mortality rate: 46.07/1000
Maternal mortality rate: 212/100 000
Life expectancy: 67.14 years
Total fertility rate2.58 children per woman
Stage in DTM: Stage 2 (Nearing 3)
• Over 50% of women do not use contraception, mainly due to religious influences.
• Common method when used: male and female sterilization.
• Slow improvement in women's education increase usage.
• Rural areas: lack of access to contraception.
• Some states report lower than 20% of women using contraceptives.
This population pyramid is typical of a developing country preparing to enter Stage 3 of the DTM. Birth rates are increasing, however the rate at which they increase is decreasing. Death rates also seem to be decreasing slowly.
In this present-day pyramid, India is entering Stage 3 of the
DTM. Birth rates are decreasing, due to the implementation of India’s anti-natalist policies. Broader shapes approaching the apex indicate a lowering death rate due to technological development. The economically active population is rather high, and it will only increase as death rates continue to lower.
Ten years in the future, India remains in Stage 3. The dependency ratio will be rather low, leading to economic sustainability.
• India has the second largest population in the world.
• In 1947, couples were having an average of 6 children each.
• India was the first country to declare a policy to slow population growth.
• In the 1960s, the total fertility rate was 5.7 and decreasing slowly.
• Over the years, India’s population policy has changed multiple times.
1. Decrease death rates.
-Mortality is an undesirable characteristic.
2. Reduce birth rates.
- Achieved using improved birth control.
3. Voluntary methodology
-No one is forced to adopt family planning or similar measures.
4. Wide approach
-The population policy has adopted a wide and integrated approach for control of population growth.
5. Population education
-Steps have been taken to educate children, as well as adults, to make them more conscious of the problem of population explosions and to realize the need for population control. The Indian media also plays a role in this.
-In order to popularize birth control and family planning, family welfare programs are offered by the government to couples who take advantage of birth control and family planning. These incentives are given in the form of cash or or other necessities.
India’s population policy has had a mixed effect. On one hand, the population is already massive, at 1.2 billion people and counting. Population density remains a significant issue. However, the current fertility rate has been reported to be as low as 2.3, which is sustainable.
• India has one of the world’s fastest growing economies, with an annual
GDP growth rate of 5.8%.
• The Indian workforce is also the second largest in the world, second only to China.
• The Indian economy is worth a total of $1.848 trillion, and will continue to expand at a modest rate.
• By 2020, the Indian economy will be one of the largest in the world
(Though currently valued 140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita)
• Indian politics has been described as chaotic, due to all the different parties and coalitions and religious groups in the country.
• Recently, the coalition leading India lost the support of one of its member parties. Another party is threatening to do the same. Within a matter of years, perhaps months, the Indian leadership could change hands. This would cause massive tension with Sikh and Muslim groups in India.
• Tensions are high between Pakistan and India. It has been stated that within the next decade or so, border feuds could escalate significantly.
• India’s waste management has been stated to be very poor, and has failed to keep up with development. Industrialization has also effected the environment. Air quality is lowering, and pollution is increasing. Landfills are becoming larger to accommodate for the waste.
• Unless a massive push for environmental reform occurs, India may have a huge environmental crisis in a few decades or less.
• As death rates continue to decrease, more of the population will live longer, which will cause the population to continue increasing over the next few years.
• The fertility rate will stabilize near the replacement fertility rate, causing the population pyramid to become more or a square. The base of the pyramid will remain similar to the shapes above it, creating an equal balance between the old and the young.
• As the fertility rate hits 2.1, there won’t be as many children, hence less schools will be needed. However, they will need to account for the current lack of support for the current generation.
• There will need to be more support for the increasing number of people living to be older
• There will need to be an improvement in the public transportation system to accommodate for extreme population density and a growing economically active population.
• Above and to the left you can see examples of overcrowding in urban zones in India.