III. Indus Valley Civilization

III. Indus Valley
A. Indus Valley
• 3rd major civilization to develop
• Know less about Indus Valley because
their language has never been
• Subcontinent – Includes India,
Pakistan, and Bangladesh
Modern-Day Indus River
B. Environmental Challenges
• Indus & Ganges Rivers – Indus
Valley developed along these two
• Wall of mountains isolates India
• Himalaya Mountains – Tallest
mountain chain in the world
Himalayan Mountains
• Khyber Pass – Major passage way
that cuts through the mountains
surrounding India
• Yearly floods spread rich deposits of
• Floods along Indus River are very
Khyber Pass
C. Planned Cities
• Most famous cities are
Harappa and Moherjo-Daro
• Very sophisticated city
• Built cities according to a
precise grid system
• Also created sophisticated plumbing
and sewage systems
• Almost every house had a private
bathroom and flushable toilet
• Pipes connected each house and
carried wastewater to underground
sewer systems
Remains of Harappa in
modern day Pakistan
D. Harappan Culture
• Indus Valley had a written language
but we can not decipher it
• Question: If you can decipher a
groups language how can you possible
know anything about their culture?
Indus Valley Board Game
E. Mysterious End
• 1750 BC – Indus Valley began to
• We do not know the exact reason
• 1970s – Satellite images suggest
that a huge earthquake or flood
probably altered the course of the
Indus River
F. Four Theories
• 1) Rivers may have changed course, and
without flooding no crops could be
• 2) People may have wore out the land
through overgrazing, farming, and
• 3) Natural disasters may have destroyed
• 4) Outside invaders may have attack