Segregation, Urban Poverty and Deprivation IB Geography II PART 1: RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION Residential Patterns in Rich Countries • Residential Segregation: the physical separation of population by culture, income or other criteria. – Common in all cities – Intensity depends on the differences between the guest and hosts. The Causes of Residential Segregation Are: • Socioeconomic Status • Ethnicity Socio-economic Status • In Western societies, socioeconomic status is determined largely by income and employment Ethnicity • The cultural differences between immigrants and existing residents often lead to difficulties in communication, which can result in segregation. PART 2: URBAN POVERTY AND DEPRIVATION Deprivation • Within most cities, there is considerable variation in quality of life. • “Poor” Areas are zones of deprivation, poverty and exclusion. • MEDCs: inner-city areas/ghettos • LEDCs: Shanty towns/slums Measuring Deprivation • Indices Used to Measure Deprivation: – Physical Indicators: quality of housing, levels of pollution, incidence of crime, vandalism, graffiti – Social Indicators: Crime (or fear of) levels of and access to health, standards of education. – Economic Indicators: access to employment, unemployment, underemployment, levels of income – Political Indicators: opportunities to vote Squatter Settlements Residential areas which have developed without legal claims to the land and/or permission from the concerned authorities to build; as a result of their illegal or semi-legal status, infrastructure and services are usually inadequate. 30% of the urban population of the world live in squatter settlements. 1 billion people! By 2050 it will be 2 billion! This animation shows how squatter settlements are upgraded over time. http://www.sln.org.uk/geography/geoweb/blowmedown/shanty05.swf Caracas - Venezuela Rocinha – Rio de Janeiro Brazil Dharavi, Mumbai Slum Living • Positive Aspects – Points of Assimilation for Immigrants – Informal entrepreneurs can work here – Informal employment at home (no commute) – Strong sense of kinship (family support) – Crime rates are relatively low. • Negative Aspects – Security of tenure is often lacking – Basic services are absent (water and sanitation) – Overcrowding – Sites are often hazardous – Levels of hygiene and sanitation are poor and disease is common. Watch Richard Neuwirth’s TED presentation on his book Shadow Cities (14 min) He presents an empathic and positive view of squatter settlements and their role in modern cities. http://www.ted.com/talk s/robert_neuwirth_on_o ur_shadow_cities.html Is it possible that squatter settlements, shanty towns, bustees, favelas, slums are part of the solution? Or perhaps is it true that they are a potent symbol of the failure of society to address the basic needs of the majority and it must be the responsibility of the public sector to provide housing for its citizens? Slums of hope or slums of despair? Discuss in elbow partners!