10th Grade Regents Review

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10th Grade
Regents Review
Mrs. Meaney
Global 10
The Enlightenment
Thinker
Country
1. John Locke,
England,
Major Ideas/Accomplishment
Natural Rights: Life, Liberty and
Property. (Ideas used in the
Declaration of Independence)
2. Thomas Hobbes, England,
Social Contract: Supported
Absolutism, People are selfish, evil
and need to be controlled.
3. Rousseau,
France,
People are born good but are
corrupted by society.
4. Montesquieu,
France,
Government should be separated into
branches.
5. Voltaire,
France,
Free Speech, Religious toleration
The French Revolution
1.
Causes of the Revolution:
Absolutism, social inequality,
unfair taxation, Enlightenment,
British and American Revolutions.
2. The Estate General was a body
made up of representatives
from all 3 estates.
3. The 1st Estate: Church officials
The 2nd Estate: Nobles
The 3rd Estate: Peasants (98% of
population)
4. The Declaration of the Rights of
Man is a document based on
the Declaration of
Independence giving rights
based on Enlightenment ideas.
5. The Reign of Terror was led by Robespierre a
radical revolutionary. Many people were
executed using the guillotine.
6. Napoleon Bonaparte took control of the
government in 1799 by a coup d-etat, or revolt
by military leaders to overthrow a government.
7. Napoleon’s achievements: Napoleonic Code,
National Bank.
8. Why did Napoleon’s empire crumble:
Oppressive (cruel), nationalism, Russia’s
“scorched earth policy” (Russia destroyed
anything that may be useful to the enemy).
9. Effects of the Revolution: Nationalism,
democracy spread.
Congress of Vienna
1. There were a series of meetings after
the death of Napoleon to restore the
balance of power to Europe by creating
a sense of peace and stability.
2. Metternich was the dominant political
figure at the meetings.
Latin American Independence Movements
Leader
Simon
Bolivar
Toussaint
L’Ouverture
Country
Accomplishments
Venezuela,
“The Liberator”, military leader, inspired
Chile,
by the Enlightenment and helped gain
Colombia,
independence for 7 countries.
Argentina,
Ecuador, Peru,
Bolivia
Haiti
Self educated, former slave led a revolt
against French in late 1700’s.
Jose de San Argentina and Joined forces with Bolivar in 1810’s to
Chile
help obtain independence from Spain.
Martin
Porfirio Diaz
Mexico
Dictator late 1800’s and early 1900’s,
brutally fought opposition, left people
uneducated, poor and landless.
1. The Latin American independence movements were influenced by the French
and American Revolutions.
Nationalism
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Nationalism is loyalty to your nation, religion, heritage, etc.
The Revolutions of 1848 were nationalist movements that occurred in
France, Austrian Empire, Italy and Germany.
In India the Indian National Congress was a mainly Hindu
organization formed to help encourage modernization and democracy
for India.
The Muslim League was formed in 1906 to further Muslim interests in
India.
The Young Turks were a group of liberals in Turkey who wanted to
strengthen the Ottoman Empire and end the threat of Western
imperialism.
The Armenian Massacre was 25 year genocide. Muslim Turks
turned against Christian Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. 1
Million Christians were killed.
Pan-Slavism is a nationalistic movement based on the idea that all
slavic people shared a common heritage.
Zionism:
A. Pogroms are violent attacks on the Jewish community.
B. Zionism is the movement devoted to building a Jewish state
in Palestine.
Unification Movements
1. Italy:
- Giuseppe Garibaldi:
Formed nationalist group
Red Shirts. Won control of
Southern Italy and helped to
unite the North.
- Giuseppe Mazzini:
Formed Young Italy
(nationalist movement) in
1831. Exiled for beliefs.
- Camilo di Cavour: Prime
Minister of Sardinia. Drove
Austria from Italy.
2. Germany:
A. Wilhelm I. Appointed Otto von
Bismarck as Prime Minister of
Prussia.
B. Later, Wilhelm took the title
Kaiser which means “German
Emperor”.
C. Bismarck has two important
policies: realpolitik and “blood
and iron”.
Industrial Revolution
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The movement away from rural
life began with the Agrarian
Revolution a change in
methods of farming.
Causes: Natural Resources,
population growth, capital for
investment.
The factory system is a means
of mass producing
manufactured items. This
leads to cheaper prices and
increased population.
Interchangeable parts: materials
that can be “swapped” for
machinery to meet specific
needs.
Interdependence means:
countries relying upon each
other.
6. Capitalism: economic system in which
production is privately owned.
A. Laissez Faire means: businesses
operating without government
interference.
7. Marxism: economic system where
production is owned by the people.
A. The Communist Manifesto: book by
Marx and Engels.
B. Proletariat means: lower class “poor”.
C. Bourgeoisie means: upper class
8. Social Darwinism is: the application of
Darwin’s ideas to society (survival of the
fittest).
9. Socialism: an ideology that focuses on
society rather than the individual.
10. Effects: global migration, global
economy, pollution, population
increases.
Meiji Restoration of Japan
1. In the 1600’s the Tokugawa shoguns
gained control of Japan and brought
stability to the nation.
2. The US naval commander
Commodore Matthew Perry sailed to
Japan to ask them to open their ports
for trade.
3. The Treaty of Kangawa was signed
and the Japanese agreed to open 2
ports for American ships.
4. The period from 1868 to 1912 is
known as the Meiji Restoration. It was
a time period of rapid modernization
of Japan.
5. Japan fought and won two wars
during this time in an attempt to
expand their power and gain more
land. These wars are the RussoJapanese War and Sino-Japanese
War.
Imperialism
1.Imperialism: When one
country takes over another
for economic benefit.
2. Causes: Ethnocentrism,
military power, raw
materials and “White Man’s
Burden”.
3. The “White Man’s Burden”
was a poem by Rudyard
Kipling that offered a
justification for imperialism.
4. Skip the chart for now.
5. Effects: Cultural diffusion,
competition, Western
domination of the world.
Country
Imperial
Power
Important Concepts
Great Britain
Sepoy Mutiny: Indian attempt to defeat
the British (Sepoys are Indians who
were trained by the British as soldiers,
“holy” cow- greased the bullets)
India
China
Great Britain, US, Spheres of influence, Opium War
Japan, France,
(English drug-trafficking), Taiping
Germany, Russia Rebellion (lasted 20 years, 20 million
people died), Boxer Rebellion
South
Africa
Great Britain,
Netherlands
African
Continent
Great Britain,
France, Germany,
Netherlands, Italy,
Belgium, Spain
Boer War (British vs. the Dutch
Boers…. British won)
Scramble for Africa (European
countries (“scrambled” to claim
territory in Africa), Berlin Conference
(regulated European colonization and
trade in Africa, native Africans had no
say)
World War I.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Causes: MANIA – Militarism,
Alliances, Nationalism,
Imperialism and
Assassination (of Arch Duke
Ferdinand).
The original members of the
Triple Alliance are Germany,
Italy and Austria-Hungary.
The original members of the
Triple Entente France, Russia
and Great Britain.
What are the Balkans? “the
Powder Keg of Europe”
tense region in Eastern
Europe.
The Eastern Front was along
the German/Russian border.
The Western Front was in
Northwestern France (Trench
Warfare).
Propaganda is the spreading
of ideas to promote or
damage a cause.
8. Why did the US enter WWI?
Unrestricted submarine
warfare, sinking of the
Lusitania.
9. Why did Russia withdraw from
WWI? Internal problems (civil
war).
10. The Treaty of Versailles listed
the provisions that ended WWI.
11. The Treaty created the
League of Nations. (task was to
ensure that a war never broke
out again)
12. Effects: Germans blamed for
the war, league of nations,
empires collapsed.
Russian Revolution
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Causes: Czarist rule, unhappiness of peasants,
unhappiness of workers, diversity and nationalism.
The March Revolution was a 1917 peasant revolt
leading to the Czar abdicating (stepping down from)
the throne.
A Soviet is a council of workers and soldiers in the
USSR.
The Bolshevik Party was a revolutionary socialist
party. Slogan: “Peace, Land, Bread”
The leader of the Bolsehvik Party was V.I. Lenin.
The New Economic Policy was Lenin’s economic policy
that allowed some privately owned businesses.
7. Joseph Stalin took control of
the USSR after Lenin’s death.
8. Totalitarianism is one party
dictatorship that regulates
all aspects of life.
9. Stalin launched 2 five year
plans to help boost the Soviet
economy.
10. A command economy is a
government that makes all
economic decisions.
11. Collective farms are state
owned farms operated by
peasants.
Time Between the Wars
1.
Turkish Nationalism:
A. Kemal Atturk led a movement for westernization
and modernization of Turkey.
2. Indian Nationalism:
A. The Amritsar Massacre was a 1919 event in which
British soldiers killed 400 Indians and wounded 1200
more.
B. Mohandas Gandhi was an Indian nationalist leader
who used civil disobedience to help inspire and unite
the Indian people successfully.
3. Women’s Suffrage Movement
A. In the mid 1800’s women in western democracies
began to demand greater rights, including suffrage (the
right to vote).
B. Countries in which the movement was successful
were US, Canada, Finland, Germany and Sweden.
4. Causes of the Great
Depression: weakness in
economics, less demand
for raw materials, stock
market crash,
overproduction of goods.
Effects: Loss of faith in
democracy, communism
strengthened,
unemployment rose.
5. Fascism: Rule of people by
nationalist, imperialist,
dictatorship government.
Leader
Adolf
Hitler
Country &
Political
Party
Germany,
Nazi Party
Policies
Japan
Militaristic, Imperialistic
Ended civil rights, oneparty government, rebuilt
military, restricted lives of
Jews
Benito
Italy, Fascist
Force and Terror, ended
Mussolini
free elections, speech, and
press
Francisco Spain, Fascist Authoritarian leader, won
Franco
Spanish Civil War
Emperor
Hirohito
World War II
1. Causes: Appeasement, German
Aggression, Japan invades China,
Italy attacks Ethiopia.
2. Appeasement: policy in which nations
gave into aggressive demands to
maintain peace.
3. Skip Chart
4. The war in Europe ended on May 7,
1945 with the surrender of the Germans.
5. The war ended in the Pacific with the
bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by
the US in August 1945.
6. The Holocaust is an example of
genocide that Hitler forced against the
Jews. He set up concentration camps,
detention centers where Jews were
starved, shot or gassed to death.
7. Effects: 75 million people killed,
economic losses, Nuremberg trials,
occupied nations, formation of the UN.
Entry of US into WWII
US was attacked at Pearl Harbor and was forced to declare war on Japan. US
entry gave the allies added strength. (Allies: British, US, France
Axis: Germany, Italy and Japan)
Battle of Stalingrad
Germans invaded USSR in 1941. Freezing Russian winter forced a Nazi defeat.
El Alamein
British forces stopped German advances in Africa and eventually trapped them.
Invasion of Italy
British and Americans invade Italy – Hitler was forced to send troops to Italy.
Invasion of Normandy
June 6, 1944 – Allied forces broke through German defenses to advance
toward Paris and freed France from German control.
The Cold War
1. Satellite nations are countries
surrounding the USSR (communist).
2. Winston Churchill gave a speech about
an imaginary line dividing Eastern and
Western Europe called the iron curtain.
3. During the Cold War, Eastern Europe
was mainly communist and Western
Europe was mainly democratic.
4. The two superpowers during the Cold
War were USSR and US.
5. The Truman Doctrine was a policy that
gave military and financial support to
countries resisting USSR.
6. The Marshall Plan gave money to
countries resisting communism.
7. The Theory of Containment hoped to limit the spread
of communism to areas already under Soviet control.
8. Germany was divided into two major parts: East
Germany and West Germany. The capital city of
Berlin was also divided into East and West.
9. Stalin blockades West Berlin forcing the US and
Great Britain to begin the Berlin Airlift to bring
supplies and food to the people.
10. NATO is North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (anticommunist military alliance)
11. The Warsaw Pact is alliance
of USSR and its allies.
12. An arms race is a
competition to obtain the
most and best weapons.
13. Sputnik I. Was the first
satellite launched into space by
the USSR. This signals the
start of the Space Race.
14. A nonaligned nation is a
nation that did not choose a
side during the Cold War.
Cold War Conflicts
A.
Korean War: After WWII, Korea
was divided into the Communist
North and Democratic South. The
North invaded the South in 1950.
The United Nations helped
prevent the takeover of the South
and today Korea is still divided.
B.
Vietnam War: In 1954, Vietnam
was temporarily divided into the
Communist North and nonCommunist South. The US gave
military support to the South and
yet the North was victorious and
united the country under
Communism.
C. Cuban Missile Crisis: The USSR placed
missiles aimed at the US in Cuba heightening
tensions. President Kennedy agreed not to
attack Cuba and Premier Kruschev asked
Castro to take the missiles down.
D. The Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in
1979. They attempted to overthrow a Muslim
government. The Soviets were forced to
withdraw.
16. The SALT I treaty was signed by Nixon
and Brezhnev and both countries agreed
to limit missile production.
17. Carter and Brezhnev signed the SALT
II treaty but it was not ratified by the US
Congress.
18. Détente is the relaxing of Cold War
tensions.
Communist China
1. Today there are two Chinas. The
People’s Republic of China
located on the mainland and
Taiwan known as the Republic of
China.
2. Mao Zedong emerged as the
communist leader in the 1930’s.
3. Mao fled from the nationalist
(Guomindang) forces led by
Chaing Kai-Shek on a 6,000 mile
retreat known as the Long March.
4. He organized the Great Leap
Forward to increase agricultural
output through the creation of
communes.
5. In 1966, Mao launched the
cultural revolution to renew
loyalty to communism. This
movement was supported by
a student formed group called
the Red Guards.
6. When Mao died, Deng
Xiaoping took over and
attempted to modernize
China by implementing the
Four modernizations.
7. In May 1989, political
protestors demanding more
rights were killed during the
Tiananmen Square
Massacre.
8. In 1997, Great Britain handed
control of Hong Kong back to
the Chinese.
Collapse of Imperialism
1.
India:
A. India earned their independence from
Great Britain in 1947 under the guidance of
Mohandas Gandhi. The first Prime Minister
was Jawaharlal Nehru.
B. India is partitioned (divided) into two
countries: Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan.
C. After Nehru’s death, Sikh extremists
assassinated two following Prime Ministers
Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi.
D. Sikhism is a religion that blends
Hinduism and Islam.
E. The Caste System underwent major
changes, yet today it is still a part of Indian
society.
F. During the Cold War, India followed a
policy of nonalignment
2. Africa:
Country Leaders What hardships did they face?
How did they earn their
independence?
Ghana
Kenya
Kwame
Nkrumah
Pan Africanism, boycotted British, Granted
independence in 1957.
Jomo
Kenyatta
Wanted land that had been taken from them –
some violent uprisings by kikuyu led to jail
time for Kenyatta, later he is freed and
becomes 1st Prime Minister.
N/A
French colony- Muslim nationalist movement
led to war. Algeria gained independence in
1962.
Nelson
Mandela &
FW de Klerk
Apartheid – legal segregation of races, 1994 –
Apartheid was over 1st election where
everyone could vote, Mandela is elected.
Algeria
S. Africa
3. Cambodia:
A. The Khmer Rouge, a group of
Communist guerillas, who gained control
of the government in 1969.
B. Under the leadership of Pol Pot,
Cambodia underwent a purge of western
influence by way of genocide. More than 1
million people were killed.
4. Myanmar:
A. Myanmar was
formally known as
Burma. After gaining
independence, a
repressive military
government took
control.
B. Aung San Suu Kyi
won an electoral victory
in 1990 but was placed
under house arrest until
1995. She still fights for
democracy.
Conflict and change in the Middle East
1.
Islamic Fundamentalism is an application of basic
concepts of Islam to government.
Country/Group
Israel
Palestine
Lebanon
Leaders
Yasir Arafit
(PLO), Rabin
(Israel)
(see Israel)
Conflicts/Problems
Palestinian (Arabs) and Israeli
(Jews) lay claims to the same land,
Israel remains divided.
(see Israel)
N/A
Civil War between Christians and
Muslims (1975) – Syria and Israel
got involved too.
Iran
Shah Pahlavi,
Ayatollah
Khomeini
Iranian Revolution saw an Islamic
Fundamentalist government put in
place.
Iraq
Saddam
Hussein
Iran-Iraq War, Iraq invaded
disputed territory (1980 – 1988),
Persian Gulf War – Iraq invades
Kuwait for oil. US helps with Iraqi
defeat.
Collapse of the Soviet Union
1. In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came
to power in the USSR.
2. Perestroika is a plan to stimulate
economic growth.
3. Glasnost is “openness” – ended
censorship.
4. In 1991, opponents tried to
overthrow Gorbachev and restore
previous order. He later resigned,
but his policies helped contribute to
the break up of the Soviet Union.
5. Boris Yeltsin becomes Russian
President in 1991.
6. Poland:
A. Solidarity was an independent trade union
led by Lech Walesa. The group sought
political change.
B. In 1989, due to the weak USSR, Poland
was able to hold their 1st elections in 50
years. Lech Walesa was elected President.
7. Germany:
A. In 1989, the Berlin Wall fell and East and
West Germany united for the 1st time since
the end of WWII.
B. Reunification did lead to some problems
such as high taxes and unemployment.
8. The Balkans:
A. After the fall of communism Croatia,
Slovenia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Macedonia separated from Yugoslavia and
became independent states.
B. The policy of removing or killing people of a
certain ethnic group is known as ethnic
cleansing.
Political and Economic change
in Latin America
Country
Problems, Solutions and Change
Argentina Juan Peron’s repressive government led to huge debt and
he lost power in a coup. 1983, democracy was restored.
Guatemala Civil War between indigenous (local) Indians and military.
1996, rebels gave up and peace was reached.
Cuba
1959 – Fidel Castro gains control of government, Later he
gains support of USSR
Nicaragua Civil War – Sandinistas (communists) vs. Contras (US
backed), 1990 – Contras Violeta Chamorro is elected.
Mexico
PRI dominated Mexican politics from 1900 – 1997 when
they lost the monopoly of power. NAFTA is created to lower
trade barriers in N. America.
Panama
Panama was given control of the canal in 2000 by the US.
Economic Trends
1. Northern, Wealthy Nations: Western
Europe, N.America, Japan, Australia.
2. Southern, Poor Nations: Asia, Africa and
Latin America.
3. Obstacles to development: geography,
population growth, past economic
policies, economic dependence (debt),
political instabilities.
A. IMF: International Monetary
Fund – helps nations in debt.
B. ASEAN: Association of South
Eastern Asian Nations.
C. NAFTA: North American Free
Trade Agreement (US,
Canada and Mexico).
D. EC: Common Market,
expanded trade.
E. EU: European Union,
introduced euro.
F. OPEC: Organization of
Petroleum Exporting
Countries, controls oil prices.
Conflicts and
Peace Efforts
1.
2.
Terrorism is deliberate use of unpredictable violence to
achieve political goals.
Methods to attempt to stop terrorism: increased airport
security, condemnation (disapproval) of terrorist activity.
Area
Problem/Leader
Resolution?
The
Balkans
Yugoslav president
(Milosevic), used ethnic
cleansing against nonserbs.
NATO intervened in 1999 but
Milosevic refused peace.
South
Asia
Sikhs want self-rule, Sri
Lanka, Indonesia
In Sri Lanka Buddhist vs. Hundus, In
Indonesia Catholic wanted
independence. Indonesia used force
but gave independence in 1999.
Africa
Rwanda (Hutu vs. Tutsi)
1994 – Hutu extremists launched
genocide against Tutsi. It was stopped
when Tutsi led rebel army took over
the government.
Area
Problem/Leader
Resolution?
Middle
East
Palestine and
Iraq (Saddam
Hussein)
Palestinians gained some self-rule
in Isreal. Violence is still a problem.
Saddam was removed from power
and executed. Democracy is trying
to become established.
North
Korea
Kim Jong Il (communist Countries fear the nuclear capabilities
Dictator)
of N. Korea. They remain poor due to
high military spending.
China
Hu Jintao – communist
China and US relations strained due
to American spy plane landing in
China.
N.Ireland
Britain maintained
control of 6 northern
countries of Ireland
after its independence
in 1922.
The Irish Republican Army (IRA)
(Catholics) tried to drive the British out
of Northern Ireland. Protestants
formed their own groups. Terrorist
activity became common. Ceasefire
1995 – incidents still occur.
Area
Problem/Leader
Resolution?
India &
Pakistan
Hindus vs. Muslims
Indian city Kashmir wants to
separate from India and join
Muslim Pakistan. Both countries
are nuclear.
Former
USSR
Collapse of communism 1994-96 Russia fought war in
led to difficult transition. Chechnya (who wanted
independence)
1999 – Russia blamed
Chechnya for attack on Moscow.
4. The United Nations:
A. List the ways that the UN maintains peace around the world –
Peacekeeping operations, disaster relief, fighting for human rights.
Social Patterns and Change
Country
Japan
How have the traditions in the
country been changes/altered?
More focus on individual work ethic and
success. Women gaining rights, entering
workplace.
Saudi Arabia Family structure has weakened. Women still
have few rights. Not ready for Western ideas.
Movement to cities led to social problems.
Egypt
Some say fundamentalism is the answer.
Afghanistan Women have obtained rights since the fall of
the Taliban. Western ideas are being used.
Fighting between those who support French
Algeria
influence and traditionalists.
How has each item evolved?
Overpopulation
Family planning, birth control
Urbanization
In cities, traditional values often fade. Women have more
opportunities in cities. Poor, overcrowded shantytowns grow
due to high cost of living.
Status of Women
West – women share equality
Middle East – varied, some rights to few rights
Global Migration
Due to influx in 1996, Germany no longer takes immigrants.
Mid 1970’s French limit immigrants, in US illegal immigration is
a problem.
Science and Technology
The Green Revolution
The food supply has increased due to irrigation, machinery, fertilizer,
pesticides.
The Computer Revolution (including the internet)
Increased demand for computers because business depends on them.
The internet (a growing computer network) links the world, provides
information, it is fast and widespread.
The Space Age
The US and Russia have cooperated in many space ventures.
Satellites are commonly used today for telephones, navigation, TV,
computers and weather forecasts.
Medical Technology
People are living longer and enjoying better quality of life (due to
vaccines, transplants, antibiotics and laser surgery). We have seen
cloning, and AIDS drug resistant microbes.
The Environment
Problem
Description
Solutions
Pollution
Contamination of the
environment
Government sets
standards on water
and air quality
Acid Rain
Rain that falls through
the air and becomes
polluted by fossil fuels
Reduction of
emissions that release
pollutants into the air.
Depletion of
the Ozone
Layer
Layer of gases in the
atmosphere that a
“hole” is forming in.
Eliminate CFC’s
(Chlorofluorocarbons)
Global
Warming
Gradual rise in global
temperatures
(greenhouse effects)
Reduction of
emissions
Problem
Description
Solutions
Deforestation
Destruction of forests
(especially tropical
rainforests)
Creating new sources
of income for
countries who are
participating in
deforestation.
Endangered
Species
Wiping out of various
animal and plant
species
Banning shipment and
sale of endangered
animals, preserving
habitats.
Desertification
Changeover of arable
land into desert
Restricting livestock
grazing, irrigation
Spread of nuclear
weapons
Disposing of
radioactive waste
properly
Nuclear
Proliferation
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