Team 11 reporting Response to climate change- system approach Or: Landscape systems to adress climate change (the group suggested this name at workshop in Minnesota 2009). Contact persons. UMN : Jason Hill Bioforsk: Lillian Øygarden UMB: Helen French St.meld. nr. 39 (WHITE PAPER) (2008–2009) Klimautfordringene – landbruket en del av løsningen Climate challenges- agriculture- part of the solution Follow up 2010: Ministry of agriculture and food: Priority to carbon storage in soil Cooperation to USA and Canada. Minnesota specific mentioned Cooperation UMN- Bioforsk, UMB Response to Climate Change- system approach • Meeting in Minnesota september 2008 – Climate change- Norwegian cooperation • Visit to Norway 10- 12 June 2009 and June 2010 • Workshop Minnesota October 2009 • Geographical location of monitoring stations. Agricultural Environmental Monitoring Programme- (JOVA) Monitoring catchments from the National Environmental Monitoring programme JOVA (presented by Johannes Deelstra ) For each field information on: Crop Soil management Fertiliser Manure Yield Pesticides Apelsvoll • Situated by lake Mjøsa • 260 m above sea level, 120 km north of Oslo • 46 ha land + 34 ha rented, possibility for irrigation • Field trials, both on own land and administrating trials in the Extension services (approx. 450 trials) Apelsvoll Field trial (1989- 2009 and continuing ) Crop production systems Energy crops Fertilising Measurement of runoff, nutrient losses……. Bioenergy from crop Halm til biovarme residues Ragnar Eltun Ragnar Eltun Bioforsk Øst Apelsvoll Bioforsk Øst Apelsvoll Bioenergy heating system at Apelsvoll Yearly heating requirement: 308 000 kWh Straw furnace: 500 kW Water tank: 50 000 L + 10 000 L network of pipes Straw requirements: 92 tonn= 42 ha = 330 round bales Stoking: Normally 3 times a week Straw storage facilites are going to be built Heating costs: 72 øre/kWh Research area1: Oslo airport Gardermoen, OSL De-icing chemicals: Kilfrost - planes, Propyleneglycol CH3-CH(OH)-CH2(OH) Clearway1 - runways, Potassium Formate COOHK N Photo: OSL 0 1 km Response to climate change- system approaches • Comparative research- based on case studies (Norway and Minnesota ) – • • • • • • • different working teams can develop cooperation, such as: Effects of climate change on production systems- positive and negative effects (identification of effects- documentation – methods- monitoring) Adaptation to changed climate: preventing unwanted effects, development of new management practices (pesticides- plant protection, pollution- soil tillage. Positive effects- longer growing season- changes cropping area/season, possibilities new crops ) Special focus: Greenhouse gases- budget farm level- comparison of production system and management practices- measures to reduce gas emissions . Carbon sequestration. Special focus : (Winter ) hydrology in catchments- runoff pathways- methods Special focus- environmental effects- pollution- erosion,N,P losses- effects of management practices- water quality (soil tillage, crops, drainage, ) Special focus- watershed engineering- extreme events- runoff controldimentioning of pipe systems, control with surface runoff Project cooperation, research exchange Focus on working with scenarios, risk assessment, planning tools, modelling, monitoring systems Topics for future collaboration Focus Hydrology: Hydrological pathways as influenced by climate change ( nutrient losses ,erosion) Separation of flowpaths: Base flow, Drain flow, Surface flow,…separate by isotope analysis Paper: compare flow separation approaches Extreme weather events for different Norwegian regions using meteorological network data and the WINDS model combined with down scaled climate scenarios from the Meteorological institute What will happen to groundwater recharge? Effect of scale and climate change on watershed management (agriculture, future) Climate change and effect on drainage design. Urban areas- storm water- rain gardens Controlled drainage and climate change and the effect on release of N2O and phosphorus… Ecosystem approach to climate change issues (hydrology, plants, carbon sequestration…) Decoupling natural and artificial watersheds 2010: Applications for joint projects: Helen French: Oct 09-application to NRC- NORKLIMA about new project based on excisting project cooperation with UMN (Climrunoff). Project working title: Extreme weather in small catchments, consequences for transport infrastructure and peri-urban settlements. Exflood. Funded for period 2010- 2013. February 2010. Clarence Lehmann,UMB : Global Spotlight Letter of Intent: Water in the world- Equator to the Pole. (UMN, UMB, Bioforsk, Tanzania). Approved for sending full application, phase II. Supporting letter from Norwegian Ministry of Agriculture and food. Not funded phase II. March 2010. Bioforsk funding. Support for networking and cooperation with UMN. September 2010. Application NRC. Better agronomy to reduce emissions of agricultural green house gases. Workpackage on drainage – nitrous oxide emissions- involving IMN. Not funded but will be given another chance , resubmitted to other funding possibilities. Feb2011.Bioforsk funding. Workshop . Hydrology- drainage- nitrous oxide emissions. UMN. Bioforsk, Baltic network . Focus; Carbon in soils Carbon sequestration: possibilities in agriculture- effect of cropping systems, soil tillage management, biochar. Modelling carbon sequestration Comparison Carbon - research- UMN – Norway Metods charcterization soil organic matter , mineralization…… Peatlands – Carbon Fate of biochar in soil. Lab, plot cale, modelling GHG gasses – management practices Linking carbon- hydrology 2010. Application to NRC (Sept 09 ); Biochar additions in Norway: effects on soil quality properties and carbon storage potential in agricultural soils (AGRIchar). UMN participant in application. Not funded, but new possibilities for cooperation /application will be searched for. Focus response to climate change. System approach • Effects of climate change on ecosystems- agricultural productions, cultural landscape (documentation, methods, monitoring, risk planning, recommendations..) – – • positive effects negative effects Adaptation to changed climate: – preventing unwanted effects, – development of new management practices (pesticides- plant protection, pollution- soil tillage. – Positive effects- longer growing season- changes cropping area/season, possibilities new crops • Carbon sequestrations- Agriculture part of the solution ? Green house gas emissions • Need to increase food production- increasing population and at same time reduce emissions • Suggest workshop : invite different disciplines – integrated systems approach. Soil- water- plant- landscape…….. (linked to another conference ) • Focusing on parallell projects, catchment comparisons ? Experimental work: Common issues K(Sw,Temp) Aggregate stability • Water infiltration and dynamics in? soil, winter conditions Transport sector: • Surface run-off, erosion and dimensioning guidelines, winter conditions Combination of point/line source over large area • Contaminants; • • Erosion – Transport sector: de-icing chemicals, road contaminants, Maintenance – Waste sites, waste water, Dimensioning ? Challenge: – Agricultural contaminants; pesticides, nutrients (N and P), monitoring during frozen conditions Monitoring techniques – Subsurface: geophysical techniques, groundwater – logging (tunnel building) – Surface: JOVA (Johannes will say more…) ? Modelling: Modelling activities Realistic boundary conditions – – Subsurface: SUTRA, Modflow, COMSOL multiphysics climatescenarios time-resolution – Surface/water shed: LISEM, SWAT, Model comparison – Risk tools: P-index, GIS-tools, INCA-P/N Differences in available data? REV-REA – how to determine? Upscaling • • • • • • Funding opportunities in Norway The Norwegian Research council NORKLIMA: Project working title: Extreme weather in small catchments, The EU consequences for can transport – Collaborative projects: Not fund USA partner activities – but be included infrastructure and peri-urban in advisory boards etc. – Marie Curie scholarships (mainly Europe) settlements Objective/goals: Fulbright scholarships (north America-Norway) Suggest measures for site-specific Leiv Erikson funds (north America-Norway)risk reduction related to extreme weather; flooding along roads, Ministry of Agriculture…. railroads and buildings in peri-urban areas. Develop tools for improved Nordic funding options land-use management and planning. – Research projects – Various exchanges options: Yggdrasil • Twinned projects; funding from Norway and USA • 2011: Norwegian Centennial Chair Programme, funding possibilities. • Jason Hill; "Norwegian Centennial Travel Awards for Faculty", and I would like to apply to return to Norway to continue opportunities for research collaborations with your group.