Rice-Wheat Cropping System - agronomy society of pakistan

Cropping System
Prepared By:
Kanwar Muhammad
Raheel Mehboob
Reg. No :
University of Agricultutre
1:Cropping system
2:History of Rice Wheat Cropping System
3:Rice wheat cropping system in Pakistan
4:Factor Affecting on Rice wheat cropping system
5:Improving Yield of Rice Wheat Cropping System
6:Scenario of Rice wheat cropping system in Pakistan
Cropping System
A cropping system may be defined as a
community of plants which is managed by a farm
unit to achieve various human goals.
A cropping system refers to growing a
combination of crops in space and time. An ideal
cropping system should :
 use natural resources efficiently
 provide stable and high returns
 do not damage the environment
Commonly Practiced Cropping System
Crop rotation practices
Intercropping systems
Mixed cropping systems
Ratoon cropping
Rice wheat cropping system is the type of
crop rotation/pattern .
History of Rice Wheat cropping System:
 The rice-wheat system has been practiced by farmers in
Asia for more than 1000 years. It has since expanded
and is currently estimated at 23.5 million ha. The ricewheat system covers
 13.5 million ha in South Asia:
 India (10.0 million ha),
 Pakistan (2.2 million ha),
 Bangladesh (0.8 million ha)
 Nepal (0.5 million ha).
It represents 32% of the total rice area and 42% of
the total wheat area in these countries.
History of Rice Wheat cropping System:
 In the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), which stretches
across these four countries, rice is usually grown in the
wet summer (May/June to October/ November) and
wheat in the dry winter (November/ December to
February/March). Although rice-wheat cropped area in
the IGP is irrigated or has assured rainwater in sub-
humid regions, the soils and crop management undergo
drastic changes during the two cropping seasons.
Rice Wheat Cropping System in Pakistan
 Rice-wheat is one of the important cropping systems
covering an area of about 2.2 million hectares in
Pakistan. A major portion (about 57 per cent) of the ricewheat area falls in the Punjab. The rice-wheat growing
areas in Pakistan are primarily situated in central Punjab
Narowal and Sialkot) followed by Sindh. The rice-wheat
cropping system in Pakistan is the major one with an
estimated area of 2.2 mha
Rice Wheat Cropping System in
 Typically the Kallar belt is the genuine homeland
of the ‘basmati’ variety. The pleasant and sweet
fragrant basmati rice has the quality of
elongation when cooked and the fluffiness that
make it unique in the world. This particular
basmati rice is found only in the Punjab .To grow
more quality food from marginal/degraded land
and diminishing water resources, there is a need
to improve the productivity of rice-wheat system
to make it more viable and eco-friendly.
Rice wheat cropping system in
Rice nursery sowing (start after 20 may)
Transplantation (after 25-35 days)
Weed management
Wheat cropping in Pakistan
Land preparation
Seed selection & sowing
Weed management
Problems of Rice Wheat Cropping System
 Time consuming
 Delayed wheat sowing
 Flood irrigation
 Higher cost of
 Labor
 Water
 Land preparation
Problems of Rice Wheat Cropping System
 The rice-wheat system, one of the major cropping systems of the South
Asia and parts of East Asia, requires special management. Rice grows well
on puddled compacted soil, whereas wheat grows best on well-drained
soils. The hardpan developed with puddling operation is important for water
retention and weed control in rice, but compacted soil creates problems of
water logging for wheat. In addition to this, the traditional land preparation
after rice harvest results in later wheat sowing dates than optimum. Due to
these management differences and traditional cultural cultivation practices,
the productivity of the rice-wheat system is stagnating and its sustainability
Factor affecting yields of Rice and Wheat
Cropping system
 Delayed planting of wheat and Transplanting of Rice
 Energy, labour and other input shortage
 Resistance of the weed Phalaris minor to isoproturon; and crop
residue burning have contributed to the stagnating or declining
production, productivity and sustainability of this system.
 Continuous cropping of rice-wheat system for several decades as
well as contrasting edaphic needs of these two crops have resulted
in increased pest pressure, nutrient mining.
Factor affecting yields of Rice and Wheat
Cropping system
 In many areas, yields have stagnated at below potential level.
 The input use efficiency is low.
 Soil organic matter content has reduced.
This can be improved by incorporating crop residue into the
soil. But burning of crop residue is common and has
increased environment pollution. Nutrients are being mined
and transported long distances and lost permanently for the
sub region. The water table has receded at several places in
the region. Also, there is a reduction in biodiversity due to
large area coverage by a single cultivar.
Improving Yield of Rice Wheat Cropping
 Therefore, agronomic research related to rice-wheat system ecology
and its environment must be directed at enhanced and sustained
productivity of this important farming system at reduced costs.
 This can only be possible if the planting techniques of rice or wheat
crops are improved resulting to saving of time, cultivation cost and
irrigation water. Resource conserving technologies (e.g. zero-tillage,
bed planting or direct seeding of rice) can be helpful in the
achievements of major goals.
Resource-conserving technologies
 Resource-conserving technologies are defined here as any practice that
improves the efficiency of use of natural resources, including water, air,
*Late planting is a major problem in most rice-wheat areas. To improve
system productivity, the wheat crop must be planted at the optimal time.
The other major cause of late wheat planting is the long turnaround time
between rice harvest and wheat planting. Long turnaround can be caused
by many factors, including excessive tillage, soil moisture problems (too wet
or too dry), lack of animal or mechanical power for plowing, and the priority
farmers place on threshing and handling the rice crop before preparing land
for wheat.
Resource Conserving Technology
 Surface Seeding; In this tillage option, wheat seed is placed onto a
saturated soil surface without any land preparation.
 Zero-Tillage with Inverted-T Openers; Another practice involves
sowing using a seed drill, without prior land preparation.
 Reduced Tillage; The Chinese have developed a seeder for
their 12 horsepower, two-wheel diesel tractor that prepares the
soil and plants the seed in one operation. This system consists
of a shallow rotovator followed by a six-row seeding system
and a roller for soil compaction.
Bed Planting System
In bed planting systems, wheat or other crops are
planted on raised beds.
 Management of irrigation water is improved.
 Bed planting facilitates irrigation before seeding and thus
provides an opportunity for weed control prior to planting.
 Plant stands are better.
 Wheat seed rates are lower.
Scenario if Rice Wheat Cropping System
in Pakistan
 Wheat and rice are the major food staples for about 180 million people in
 Wheat always occupies a central position in agricultural policies. At present,
it contributes 13.8 per cent to value added agriculture and 3.2 per cent to
GDP. Rice is a high value cash crop and is also a major export item. Rice
grown in Pakistan comprises of two major groups: Basmati (high quality
aromatic rice) and IRRI (coarse rice).It was observed that producers of
wheat and basmati rice are dis-protected or implicitly taxed via depressed
prices instead of their respective international prices.
Scenario if Rice Wheat Cropping System
in Pakistan
 An important conclusion is that farmers should receive price in line
with international prices for their commodities to induce the
expansion of these crops.
 In wheat production the cost of domestic resources was 0.86 $ & for
rice production 0.53 $ to save one dollar in terms of wheat imports,
which also implies comparative advantage in wheat production as
an import substitute. The result suggests that these commodities are
likely to have a great production growth once distortion in output and
input markets are removed and domestic prices catch up with
international market prices.