Types of Grains power point

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What’s in a Grain?
Wheat has ears?
Wheat berries grow at the top of the
wheat plant. The grains are tightly packed
together in clusters and called ears.
 Each ear of wheat is made up of 40-60
grains. The grains have to be separated
from the ears and stalks before they can
be turned into flour. Wheat berries are
intact grains of wheat.

Parts of a grain
Bran: “outer shell”
that protects the
seed. Contains
vitamins, minerals,
protein and fiber
 Endosperm: inner,
contains carbohydrates
 Germ: food for the
seed. Contains
vitamins B & E, fat
and protein

Whole Grains vs. Refined
Whole Grains: Use
the “whole” seed to
make your grain
products
 Examples:

◦ Whole wheat flour
◦ Brown Rice
◦ Whole wheat pasta
Refined Grains: use
only the endosperm
“starchy part”
 Examples:

◦ White bread
◦ White rice
◦ Regular pasta
Types of grains
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Barley
Buckwheat
Bulgur
Corn
Couscous
Grano
Kamut
Millet
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Oats
Quinoa (keen-wa)
Rice
Rye
Spelt
Wheat
Wild Rice
Barley
Barley
One of the oldest grains and still a staple
of Middle Eastern diets.
 Humans made bread from barley long
before they used wheat.
 Most barley sold for food is “pearled”
barley used in soups. Barley is “pearled”
by polishing off the out layers of bran.

Buckwheat
Buckwheat
The fruit of a leafy plant belonging to the
same family as sorrel and rhubarb.
 This nutritious food has a nutty flavor and
is ideal for people allergic to the gluten in
wheat.
 Used by Americans for pancakes, by
Russians for blintzes, and Japanese and
Koreans for soba noodles.
 Sometimes called groats or kasha.

Bulgur
Bulgur
Bulgur is whole wheat processed by
steaming, drying , and cracking the
kernels.
 Bulgur maintains the nutritional values of
whole wheat and is used in salads and
pilafs.

Oats
Oats
Originally a weed in between rows of
wheat or barley.
 95% of the world’s oat crop is animal feed.
 Our “oatmeal” is made from rolled oatsoat groats that are steamed and flattened.
 Quick cooking oatmeal is made from
groats that are cut into several pieces
before steaming and are rolled into
thinner flakes.

Quinoa (keen-wa)
Quinoa (keen-wa)
This pseudo-grain was grown by the Incas
centuries ago.
 It is rich in complete protein and many
nutrients.
 Can work as a rice substitute but cooks
in half the time.

Rice
Rice
Half the world’s population eats rice three
times a day.
 In Chinese, the words for rice and culture
are the same.
 In Japanese the word for rice also means
meal.
 Brown rice is the entire grain of rice with
only the inedible outer husk removed.
 Brown rice is nutritious, high in fiber, and has
a rich nutty flavor.

Rye
Rye
Rye was first seen as a weed
 Rye was the basic grain of Britains as well
as countries of Northern and Eastern
Europe.
 Rye contains little gluten so 100%rye
flour will not make a loaf of bread. Most
rye bread is at least 80% wheat flour.
Bread can have as little as 2% rye and still
be called rye bread.

Wheat
Wheat
Wheat ranks first in production among
the world’s grains and accounts for over
20% of all calories consumed by humans.
 Common foods made with wheat are
cereal, bread, crackers, pasta.
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