The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution
Great Britain
• Industrialization- Process of developing
machine production of goods
• First country to be industrialized, then
spread to Continental Europe and North
• Transformed the way people worked
• Machines began to do jobs that people used
to do by hand
Agricultural Revolution
• Wealthy landowners bought up small farms
and enclosed their land with fences or
hedges- enclosures
• Enclosures led to two things:
– 1) Landowners tried new agricultural methods
– 2) Large landowners forced small farmers to
become tenant farmers or to give up farming
and move to the cities
New Methods for Farmers
• Seed Drill- Invented by Jethro Tull and
allowed farmers to sow seeds in wellspaced rows at specific depths
• Crop Rotation- Farmers would plant
different crops each year
• Breeding- Farmers would only breed their
best pigs, for example, so the food supply
increased and people were healthier
Why It Began in Britain...
Extensive natural resources
Expanding economy
Banking system
Growing overseas trade
Political stability
Natural Resources
• Water power and coal to fuel the new
• Iron ore to construct machines, tools, and
• Rivers for inland transportation
• Harbors from which merchant ships set sail
Expanding Economy
• Businesspeople invested in the manufacture
of new inventions
Banking System
• People were encouraged by the availability
of bank loans to invest in new machinery
and expand their operations
• Economic progress led to the increased
demand for goods
• England is an island, so there are many
routes to import and export
Political Stability
• Gave them a huge advantage over their
• Although Britain took part in many wars in
the 1700s, none occurred on British soil
• Parliament passed laws to help encourage
and protect business ventures
Factors of Production
• Land, labor, and capital (wealth)
• Only Britain had all of these factors, which
is why industrialization began in Britain
Textile Industry
• First industry to be transformed by new
• Flying Shuttle- invented by John Kay
– Doubled the work a weaver could do in a day
• Spinning Jenny- invented by James
– Necessary invention for spinners because they
could not keep up with weavers
Textile Industry, cont.
• Water Frame- invented by Richard Arkwright
– Used waterpower from rapid streams to drive
spinning wheels
• Spinning Mule
– Made thread that was stronger, finer, and more
consistent than earlier spinning machines
• Water-Powered Loom- invented by Edmund
– Sped up weaving, run by waterpower
• Water frame, the spinning mule, and the
power loom were bulky and expensive
• They took the work of spinning and
weaving out of the house
• Wealthy textile merchants set up the
machines in large buildings called factories
– Needed waterpower, so the first ones were built
by rivers and streams
Cotton Gin
• England’s cotton came from the American
South in the 1790s
• Cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney to
speed up the chore of removing seeds from
cotton (doing it by hand was hard work)
• American cotton production skyrocketed
from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85
million pounds in 1810
Steam Engine
• Improved by James Watt in 1765
• Watt was paid by an entrepreneur to build a
better machine
• The Clermont was invented by Robert
Fulton in 1807
• Human-made waterways that provided
inland transportation
• Slashed the cost of transporting both raw
materials and finished goods
• John McAdam improved roads by using
large stones topped with a layer of crushed
• This prevented wagons from sinking in the
• Turnpikes- Travelers had to pay a toll
before going farther
Liverpool-Manchester Railroad
• The Rocket- hauled a 13-ton load at 24
mph--an unheard-of speed
• Railway officially opened in 1830 and was
an immediate success
Effects of the Railroad
• Spurred industrial growth by giving
manufacturers a cheap way to transport
materials and finished products
• Created hundreds of thousands of new jobs
• Boosted England’s agricultural and fishing
• Encouraged country people to take distant
city jobs
• Mass movement of people to cities
• Between 1800-1850, most of Europe’s
urban areas doubled or quadrupled
• London became the largest city in Europe
– Population
• Reached 1 million by 1800, and the numbers
exploded after that
Living Conditions
• Cities grew too rapidly
• No development plans, sanitary codes, or
building codes
• Lacked adequate housing, education, and
police protection
• Diseases spread
• Life span was only 17 years for working
class people
Working Conditions
• Average worker spent 14 hours a day on the
job, 6 days a week
• Factories were dirty
• Machines injured workers
• Children joined the work force as young as
6 years old
– They were often beaten by factory owners for
falling asleep on the job
The Middle Class
• Social class made up of skilled workers,
professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy
• Usually consisted of factory owners,
shippers, and merchants
• Some became just as rich as the top class in
The Working Class
• Unlike the middle class, they saw little
improvement in their living and working
• These people were slowly being replaced by
machines and were being put out of work
• To protest, many would destroy the
machines that were replacing them
Positive Effects of the IR
• Created jobs for workers
• Contributed to the wealth of the nation
• Fostered technological progress and
• Greatly increased the production of goods
• Raised the standard of living
• Provided the hope of improvement in
people’s lives
Positive Effects, cont.
Healthier diets
Better housing
Cheaper, mass-produced clothing
Expanded educational opportunities
Factory Act of 1819
• Restricted working age and hours
• Many factories did not abide by this law
Negative Effects
• Polluted the natural environment
• Coal blackened the air
• Textile dyes and other wastes poisoned the
Industrialization Spreads
• The blockade during the War of 1812 forced
the U.S. to use its own resources to develop
independent industries
• Began in the textile industry
U.S., cont.
• Britain had forbidden engineers, mechanics,
and toolmakers to leave the country
• Samuel Slater- British mill worker who
emigrated to the U.S. and built a spinning
machine from memory
• Moses Brown- Opened the first factory in
Pawtucket, RI
• Francis Cabot Lowell- Mechanized every
stage in the manufacture of cloth
Mill Girls
• Young women flocked from rural towns to
the cities
• Worked 12 hours a day, 6 days a week
• Although they went to gain independence,
they were watched very closely by their
employers inside and outside the factories
Rise of Corporations
• Corporation- Business owned by
stockholders who share in its profits but are
not personally responsible for its debts
• Stock- Certain rights of ownership
Large Corporations in the U.S.
• Standard Oil
– Founded by John D. Rockefeller
• Carnegie Steel Company
– Founded by Andrew Carnegie
• Both of these businesses wanted to control
all aspects of their own industries in order
to make big profits
Rise of Global Inequality
• Industrialization widened the wealth gap
between industrialized countries and nonindustrialized countries
• Some wealthier countries did use lessdeveloped nations for raw materials
• Imperialism- Policy of extending one
country’s rule over many other lands
– This gave industrialized nations even more
power and wealth
Transformation of Society
• Between 1700-1900, revolutions in
agriculture, production, transportation, and
communication changed the way people
lived in Western Europe and the U.S.
• Affected everything from daily life to life
• Emergence of the middle class created great
opportunities for education and democratic
Philosophers of Industrialization
Laissez Faire
• Economic policy of letting owners of
industry and business set working
conditions without interference
• Favors a free market unregulated by the
• Stemmed from philosophers of the
Enlightenment who believed that the
economy would prosper from free trade
Adam Smith
• The Wealth of Nations
– Economic liberty guaranteed economic
• Three Natural Laws of Economics
– 1) self-interest- people work for their own good
– 2) competition- competition forces people to
make a better product
– 3) supply and demand- enough goods would be
produced at the lowest possible price to meet
demand in a market economy
• Economic system in which the factors of
production are privately owned and money
is invested in business ventures to make a
• The factors of production are owned by the
public and operate for the welfare of all
• Socialist philosophers thought that
governmental control of factories, mines,
railroads, and other key industries would
end poverty and promote equality
• Workers would no longer be at the mercy of
their employers
Karl Marx
• Radical type of socialism called Marxism
• The Communist Manifesto
– Human societies have always been divided into
warring classes (“haves” v. “have-nots”,
employers v. workers, bourgeoisie v.
– Believed the Industrial Revolution just made
the wealth gap worse
– Predicted that workers would overthrow their
• All factors of production (land, mines,
railroads, factories, and businesses) are
owned by the people
• No private property
• All goods and services would be shared
• Marx defined this in The Communist
Effects of The Communist
• Marxism inspired revolutionaries such as
Russia’s Lenin, China’s Mao Zedong, and
Cuba’s Fidel Castro
• These leaders adapted Marx’s beliefs to
their own specific situations and needs
• Voluntary labor associations that speak for
all workers in a particular trade
• Collective bargaining- negotiations
between workers and their employers
• Unions bargained for better working
conditions and higher pay
• Strike- refusal to work if factory owners
refused workers’ demands
British Reform Laws
• Factory Act of 1833- made it illegal to hire
children under 9 years old; children ages 9-12
could not work more than 8 hours a day; young
people ages 13-17 could not work more than
12 hours
• Mines Act- prevented women and children
from working underground
• Ten Hours Act of 1847- limited the workday
to ten hours for women and children who
worked in factories
U.S. Reform Laws
• National Child Labor Committee- wanted
to end child labor altogether
– Argued that child labor lowered wages for all
– Persuaded union members to join the reformers
– Pressured national and state politicians to ban
child labor and set maximum working hours
Reform Spreads
• Affected such areas as improving the
workplace, extending the right to vote to
working-class men, helping to end slavery,
and promoting new rights for women and
• Horace Mann- favored free public
education to all children
• Alexis de Tocqueville- battled the brutal
conditions under which prisoners lived