Industrial environmental management and ecological industry

Chapter 19 Industrial environmental
management and ecological industry
19.1 Industrial environmental pollution
19.2 Cleaner production
19.3 Circular economy and ecological
19.4 Case study
19.1 Industrial environmental
19.1.1 Characteristics of industrial environmental
High concentration of pollutants
Complicated composition, strong toxicity and not easy
to be purified.
With color or peculiar smell
The changes of the pollutants’ discharge amount and
characteristic is big
19.1.2 Comprehensive prevention and
control strategy of industrial pollution
Change the traditional development strategy, and take
sustainable development
Adjust the industry and energy structure,and optimize
industrial layout under considering the pollution prevention and
environment constraints.
Establish a modern enterprise system, and strengthen
environment management
Strengthen the leading role of each level government,and
develop the regulatory function of the market
19.2 Cleaner production
19.2.1 The concept of cleaner production
The new idea, which overall prevention environment strategy
will be consistently applied to production processes, products
and services to increase eco-efficiency and reduce the risks of
human and environment
The reasonable effective use of natural resources
Reduction of waste and pollutant
Sustainable development of national economy
19.2.2 Main way of implementation of cleaner
Comprehensive utilization of resources
Reform process and equipment, develop new process
Establish closed production line to have material
Improve product design and adjust product structure
Develop environmental protection technology and
improve the necessary end treatment
Strengthen scientific management
19.2.3 Cleaner production audit
 Stage of preparation
Leadership make the decision and organize
the work team making plans, mobilizing
and preparing the training things
Stage of audit
Determine the audit object, set the goal
of cleaner production and implement the
Stage of formulating plans
Stage of implement the program
Overall arrange, implemente as planed ,
estimate the result of cleaner production
program,make the follow-up plan
19.2.4 Assessment method of cleaner production
Assessment of
cleaner production
Basic indicators: the main material consumption and
emission levels which occurs from producing the goods in
output per unit
Special indexes: special aspects of the impact of certain
technology’s environmental performance or the aspect
which may have a serious accident in potential ,which the
basic indicators is not able to concern.
Extended indicators: study some features of the product life
beyond the production stage
Table 19-1 The component of ISO14000 series standards
Standard No
Environmental indicator of product
Environmental management system standard, environment audit
Basic standards
ISO14000series standards
standard and environmental behavior evaluation standard
Environment standards
Method standard
Life cycle assessment standards
Basic standards
Terms and definitions,
the environmental factors of product standard
Figure 19-1 ISO14000 series standards relationship
2. The significance of implement of ISO14000 series
standard by industrial enterprises
Provide the enterprises primary tool to strengthen the
basis management and environment management
Improve the products’ competitiveness and reputation in
the international market
Reduce non-tariff trade barriers, and accelerate China's
economy to fit the pace of world economy
The characteristics of ISO14000 standard
Wide applicability
The principle of voluntary
Emphasize pollution prevention and continuous
Emphasize the continuous compliance of laws
and regulations,but does not make specific
regulation to environment behavior.
Emphasize the holistic management system
3. The audit method of environmental management
The audit of environmental management system
Objectively obtain evidence to evaluate ,to jude whether an
organization's environment management system comply with the
documented and systematic verification process of environment
management system audit criteria ,and the audit result will be
reported to the truster.
Generally,environmental management system audit criteria
have three parts as follows:
ISO14001 standard
The environment standard management system document established by
the auditee
Environment laws, regulations and other requirements which is adapted to
the auditee
The review process is closely around the following basic problems:
Whether the environmental management system is perfect
Whether the activity of environmental management system is
Whether the implementation is good.
Whether the system is fully appropriate to the environmental
policy and targets
Audit process is divided into three stages
Preparation of audit, implementation of audit and submiting the
audit reports
Figure 19-2 operation mode of environmental management system
19.3 Circular economy and ecological industry
19.3.1 Circular economy
Advocating a development model that the economic development is
harmonized with the environment, its economic growth model is "resources
→ Products → renewable resources," feedback process
New resources
Figure 19-3 Schematic diagram of circular economy
Three “R” principle:
(Reduce)、 (Reuse)、 (Recycle)
(1). Three mode of circular economy
Enterprise level: circulation in enterprise and
promotion the recycling of raw materials and energy
Regional level: according to the principle of industry
ecology, integrate the material, energy and information
between the firms to form industry metabolism and
symbiotic relationship between the firms.Join different
economic organizations to establish Industry
Ecological Garden
Social level: complete the closed loop as "natural
resources - products and supplies - renewable
resources," in the whole society
(2) Practice of circular economy
Germany: a pioneer in the development of circular
economy countries, drew up the waste treatment method
in year 1972; promulgated "Circular Economy and
Waste Management law” in year 1996,
Japan:the circular economy legislation is the most
comprehensive,and its goal is to create a resource
“recycling society." In year 2000, Japan enacted the
"promote the establishment of recycling society,"
"effective use of resources law" and other laws
United States: There is no national recycling economy
regulations, more than half of the states have enacted
various forms of recycling regulations
The practice exploration of circular economy
in China
Develop cleaner production in the enterprise. At present, there are more
than more than 20 industries in 20 provinces ,in other words ,more than
400 enterprises developing the cleaner production audit. More than 5,000
enterprises have been qualified by ISO14000 environment management
system certification.
Establish eco-industrial park in industry clusters which is composed by
symbiotic enterprise group
Carried out circular economy in the cities and provinces as a precedent.
Circular economy development model has been researched between
regions in Liaoning and Guiyang etc.
Ecological industry
1. Industrial ecology
The basic principle of eco-industry is industrial ecology.It imitates
natural ecological processes and industry material recycling methods to
plan a industry mode of production system,as a production model.
Former GE vice president of research department RobertFrosch, firstly
proposed the concept of industrial ecology in "sustainable industry
development strategy" in "Science American" in 1989
Eco-industry combination, hatching and design principles: mainly
includes horizontal coupling, vertical closure, regional integration,
flexible structure, function-oriented, combining hard and soft, selfregulation, employment increase, human ecology and information
2. The evolution of industrial system
Industrial system can be regarded as a special case of ecological systems, and
it has substance, energy, information flow and storage the same as natural
ecosystems.One of the main explorers of this theory, Braden R. Allenby,
proposed a three-level eco-industrial system evolution theory in the industrial
system. See figure19-4。
Ideal industrial ecosystem is including four major actors (see figure 19-5) :
Resources miner
Processors (manufacturers)
Waste handler
Figure 19-4 Evolution Schematic of industrial system three-level ecosystem
(Notes:quoted from Deng Nansheng and Wufeng, 2002)
Figure 19-5 Schematic diagram of ideal industrial ecosystem
(quoted from Deng Nansheng and Wufeng, 2002)
19.3.3 Eco-industrial park
A new industrial organization pattern is designed by
circular economy theory and industrial ecology theory.It
simulates natural ecosystems to establish industrial
system as "producer - consumer - decomposers" cycle
ways and food chain.
1. Classification of eco-industry park
new planning model
improvement model
virtual eco-industry park
2. The basic principle of eco-industrial park planning and design
Ecosystem park system planning
Members constitute
System integration
Technical service
Scientific research and development
Information integration
energy integration
Wastewater integration
Material integration
Figure19-6 The design framework of eco-industrial park
3. Eco-industrial park practice
Prototype of eco-industry park is Kalundborg, in Denmark
There are 20 cities cooperating with large companies to plan to
establish eco-industrial park in United States since 1993.
In China, the eco-industry park is the third generation industry
park after economic development zones,and hi-tech Development
In China,we started construction pilot of eco-industry park in
1999,and built the first demonstration of national industry park –
Guangxi Guigang eco-industrial park.
19.3.4 The relationship between cleaner production,
ecological industry and circular economy
It breaks through the traditional environment protection conception.
The same point of clear production, eco-industry and circular
economy is to raise the protection guidance of environment protection
to economic development.
The nature and premise of eco-industry and circular economy is
clean production.
19.4 Case study
1.Cleaner production case of Fuyang chemistry plant
Anhui Fuyang chemistry plant is a comprehensive chemistry
company ,mainly producing synthetic ammonia.The annual
output is 130,000 ton. In 1997, "China - Canada Clean
Production cooperation project" started,which is organized
by the State Economy and Trade Commission. The plant
was regarded as this cooperation project’s demonstration in
the fertilizer industry enterprises.Clean production
implements comprehensively in this plant.32 clean
production program proposed and some of the programs
were implemented.
Table - Consumption contrast table of main production output and raw
materials of Fuyang chemical plant
2.Industrial symbiosis of Kalundborg, Denmark
Kalundborg is located in shore of the north sea, it is a small industrial
city with 2 million residents. Industrial symbiosis is gradually formed
from early 1970s, it is mainly made up of five companies and municipal
authorities. The main exchange flow chart, please see figure 19-7.
Asnaesvaerket Power Plant
Statoiloil Refinery
Novo.Nordisk Company
Gyproc Gypsum Material Company
A/S Bioteknisk Jordrens Soil Remediation Company
Figure 19-7 Industrial symbiosis of Kalundborg
(Notes:quoted from Xiujuan,2003)
Benefit Analysis:
It can save 1200,000 m3 water per year for the refinery,and
900,000 m3 water can be instead as freshwater after wastewater
treatment in pharmaceutical companies.
 The power plants save 30,000 ton coal and 190,000 ton oil by
using the emptying flame gas of the refinery.
 The organic residues of pharmaceutical manufacturing can be
made of organic fertilizer, and save 800 ton N, and 400 ton P. And
it saves 2800 ton sulfur and 80000 ton gypsum in composite
utilization process
 In 20 years, a total investment of 16 waste exchange project
was invested in Kalundborg ,and the total amount is estimated to
60 million U.S. dollar .The benefit is supposed to 10 million U.S.
dollar per year.
Thank you!