Chapter 19 Industrial environmental management and ecological industry 19.1 Industrial environmental pollution 19.2 Cleaner production 19.3 Circular economy and ecological industry 19.4 Case study 19.1 Industrial environmental pollution 19.1.1 Characteristics of industrial environmental pollution High concentration of pollutants Complicated composition, strong toxicity and not easy to be purified. With color or peculiar smell The changes of the pollutants’ discharge amount and characteristic is big 19.1.2 Comprehensive prevention and control strategy of industrial pollution Change the traditional development strategy, and take sustainable development Adjust the industry and energy structure,and optimize industrial layout under considering the pollution prevention and environment constraints. Establish a modern enterprise system, and strengthen environment management Strengthen the leading role of each level government,and develop the regulatory function of the market 19.2 Cleaner production 19.2.1 The concept of cleaner production The new idea, which overall prevention environment strategy will be consistently applied to production processes, products and services to increase eco-efficiency and reduce the risks of human and environment Aim The reasonable effective use of natural resources Reduction of waste and pollutant Sustainable development of national economy 19.2.2 Main way of implementation of cleaner production Comprehensive utilization of resources Reform process and equipment, develop new process Establish closed production line to have material recycling Improve product design and adjust product structure Develop environmental protection technology and improve the necessary end treatment Strengthen scientific management 19.2.3 Cleaner production audit Stage of preparation Leadership make the decision and organize the work team making plans, mobilizing and preparing the training things Stage of audit Determine the audit object, set the goal of cleaner production and implement the audit Stage of formulating plans Stage of implement the program Overall arrange, implemente as planed , estimate the result of cleaner production program,make the follow-up plan 19.2.4 Assessment method of cleaner production Assessment of cleaner production Environmental evaluation economic evaluation technical evaluation Basic indicators: the main material consumption and emission levels which occurs from producing the goods in output per unit Special indexes: special aspects of the impact of certain technology’s environmental performance or the aspect which may have a serious accident in potential ,which the basic indicators is not able to concern. Extended indicators: study some features of the product life beyond the production stage 19.2.5 ISO14000 1.Component Table 19-1 The component of ISO14000 series standards subcommittee Topic Standard No SC1 EMS 14001-14009 SC2 EA 14010-14019 SC3 EL 14020-14029 SC4 EPE 14030-14039 SC5 LCA 14040-14049 SC6 T&D 14050-14059 WG1 Environmental indicator of product standard Reserve 14060 14061-14100 Environmental management system standard, environment audit Basic standards Evaluation organization Evaluation products ISO14000series standards standard and environmental behavior evaluation standard Environment standards Method standard Life cycle assessment standards Basic standards Terms and definitions, the environmental factors of product standard Figure 19-1 ISO14000 series standards relationship 2. The significance of implement of ISO14000 series standard by industrial enterprises Provide the enterprises primary tool to strengthen the basis management and environment management Improve the products’ competitiveness and reputation in the international market Reduce non-tariff trade barriers, and accelerate China's economy to fit the pace of world economy The characteristics of ISO14000 standard Authority Wide applicability The principle of voluntary Emphasize pollution prevention and continuous improvement Emphasize the continuous compliance of laws and regulations,but does not make specific regulation to environment behavior. Emphasize the holistic management system 3. The audit method of environmental management system The audit of environmental management system Objectively obtain evidence to evaluate ,to jude whether an organization's environment management system comply with the documented and systematic verification process of environment management system audit criteria ,and the audit result will be reported to the truster. Generally,environmental management system audit criteria have three parts as follows: ISO14001 standard The environment standard management system document established by the auditee Environment laws, regulations and other requirements which is adapted to the auditee The review process is closely around the following basic problems: Whether the environmental management system is perfect Whether the activity of environmental management system is correct. Whether the implementation is good. Whether the system is fully appropriate to the environmental policy and targets Audit process is divided into three stages ： Preparation of audit, implementation of audit and submiting the audit reports Figure 19-2 operation mode of environmental management system 19.3 Circular economy and ecological industry 19.3.1 Circular economy Advocating a development model that the economic development is harmonized with the environment, its economic growth model is "resources → Products → renewable resources," feedback process New resources resources production products consumption emissions Figure 19-3 Schematic diagram of circular economy Three “R” principle： （Reduce）、 (Reuse)、 (Recycle) waste (1). Three mode of circular economy Enterprise level: circulation in enterprise and promotion the recycling of raw materials and energy Regional level: according to the principle of industry ecology, integrate the material, energy and information between the firms to form industry metabolism and symbiotic relationship between the firms.Join different economic organizations to establish Industry Ecological Garden Social level: complete the closed loop as "natural resources - products and supplies - renewable resources," in the whole society （2） Practice of circular economy Germany: a pioneer in the development of circular economy countries, drew up the waste treatment method in year 1972; promulgated "Circular Economy and Waste Management law” in year 1996, Japan:the circular economy legislation is the most comprehensive,and its goal is to create a resource “recycling society." In year 2000, Japan enacted the "promote the establishment of recycling society," "effective use of resources law" and other laws United States: There is no national recycling economy regulations, more than half of the states have enacted various forms of recycling regulations The practice exploration of circular economy in China Develop cleaner production in the enterprise. At present, there are more than more than 20 industries in 20 provinces ,in other words ,more than 400 enterprises developing the cleaner production audit. More than 5,000 enterprises have been qualified by ISO14000 environment management system certification. Establish eco-industrial park in industry clusters which is composed by symbiotic enterprise group Carried out circular economy in the cities and provinces as a precedent. Circular economy development model has been researched between regions in Liaoning and Guiyang etc. 19.3.2 Ecological industry 1. Industrial ecology The basic principle of eco-industry is industrial ecology.It imitates natural ecological processes and industry material recycling methods to plan a industry mode of production system,as a production model. Former GE vice president of research department RobertFrosch, firstly proposed the concept of industrial ecology in "sustainable industry development strategy" in "Science American" in 1989 Eco-industry combination, hatching and design principles: mainly includes horizontal coupling, vertical closure, regional integration, flexible structure, function-oriented, combining hard and soft, selfregulation, employment increase, human ecology and information networks 2. The evolution of industrial system Industrial system can be regarded as a special case of ecological systems, and it has substance, energy, information flow and storage the same as natural ecosystems.One of the main explorers of this theory, Braden R. Allenby, proposed a three-level eco-industrial system evolution theory in the industrial system. See figure19-4。 Ideal industrial ecosystem is including four major actors （see figure 19-5） ： Resources miner Processors (manufacturers) Consumer Waste handler 无限的资源 无限的废物 生态系统 组成部分 一级生态工业系统 一级工业生态系统 能量与有限 的资源 有限的废物 二级生态工业系统 二级工业生态系统 能量 三级生态工业系统 三级工业生态系统 Figure 19-4 Evolution Schematic of industrial system three-level ecosystem （Notes：quoted from Deng Nansheng and Wufeng, 2002） Figure 19-5 Schematic diagram of ideal industrial ecosystem （quoted from Deng Nansheng and Wufeng, 2002） 19.3.3 Eco-industrial park A new industrial organization pattern is designed by circular economy theory and industrial ecology theory.It simulates natural ecosystems to establish industrial system as "producer - consumer - decomposers" cycle ways and food chain. 1. Classification of eco-industry park new planning model improvement model virtual eco-industry park 2. The basic principle of eco-industrial park planning and design Ecosystem park system planning Circularity Diversity Unification Multifunction Efficiency dematerialization Members constitute System integration reduction Recycling resourcization Technical service Scientific research and development Information integration energy integration Wastewater integration Material integration Information exchange Figure19－6 The design framework of eco-industrial park 3. Eco-industrial park practice Prototype of eco-industry park is Kalundborg, in Denmark There are 20 cities cooperating with large companies to plan to establish eco-industrial park in United States since 1993. In China, the eco-industry park is the third generation industry park after economic development zones,and hi-tech Development Zone. In China,we started construction pilot of eco-industry park in 1999,and built the first demonstration of national industry park – Guangxi Guigang eco-industrial park. 19.3.4 The relationship between cleaner production, ecological industry and circular economy It breaks through the traditional environment protection conception. The same point of clear production, eco-industry and circular economy is to raise the protection guidance of environment protection to economic development. The nature and premise of eco-industry and circular economy is clean production. 19.4 Case study 1．Cleaner production case of Fuyang chemistry plant Anhui Fuyang chemistry plant is a comprehensive chemistry company ,mainly producing synthetic ammonia.The annual output is 130,000 ton. In 1997, "China - Canada Clean Production cooperation project" started,which is organized by the State Economy and Trade Commission. The plant was regarded as this cooperation project’s demonstration in the fertilizer industry enterprises.Clean production implements comprehensively in this plant.32 clean production program proposed and some of the programs were implemented. Table - Consumption contrast table of main production output and raw materials of Fuyang chemical plant 19 2 2．Industrial symbiosis of Kalundborg, Denmark Kalundborg is located in shore of the north sea, it is a small industrial city with 2 million residents. Industrial symbiosis is gradually formed from early 1970s, it is mainly made up of five companies and municipal authorities. The main exchange flow chart, please see figure 19-7. Asnaesvaerket Power Plant Statoiloil Refinery Novo.Nordisk Company Gyproc Gypsum Material Company A/S Bioteknisk Jordrens Soil Remediation Company Figure 19－7 Industrial symbiosis of Kalundborg (Notes：quoted from Xiujuan，2003) Benefit Analysis: It can save 1200,000 m3 water per year for the refinery,and 900,000 m3 water can be instead as freshwater after wastewater treatment in pharmaceutical companies. The power plants save 30,000 ton coal and 190,000 ton oil by using the emptying flame gas of the refinery. The organic residues of pharmaceutical manufacturing can be made of organic fertilizer, and save 800 ton N, and 400 ton P. And it saves 2800 ton sulfur and 80000 ton gypsum in composite utilization process In 20 years, a total investment of 16 waste exchange project was invested in Kalundborg ,and the total amount is estimated to 60 million U.S. dollar .The benefit is supposed to 10 million U.S. dollar per year. Thank you!