National Water Study

Overview of the Report
Vitus Adaboo Azeem – ED/GII
Coconut Groove Hotel, Accra
September 22, 2011
Outline of Presentation
Introduction of Ghana Integrity Initiative
The Research Project
Broader Governance Issues
Overview of the Water sector
Country Data
Water Resources Situation
Water Sector Governance
Rural Water Supply
Urban Water Supply
Achievements, Challenges, Opportunities &
Ghana Integrity Initiative
• GII was established in 1999 as a non-profit civil
empowerment organization with a vision of a
corruption-free Ghana
• GII is the local chapter of Transparency
International (TI), the leading international nongovernmental organization (NGO) devoted solely to
the fight against corruption worldwide.
• It strives to be the leading anti-corruption
organization empowering citizens to demand
responsiveness, accountability and transparency
from people and institutions in Ghana.
The Research Project
• Following a decision to focus on improved service
delivery through a reduction in corruption TI sought
funding to undertake the project • “Transparency & Integrity in Service Delivery in
Africa” (TISDA) in a number of African countries
focusing on Health, Water and Education.
• The project is sponsored by the Bill and Melinda
Gates Foundation through Transparency
International Secretariat for a three-year period
• Participating chapters were allowed to choose the
Why GII Chose to focus on Water
Water is a basic necessity and cannot afford to be
Quality water positively impacts all other basic
necessities of life.
If water is priced at an economic rate, the poor turn to
low quality sources with negative implications.
Low quality water and inadequate sanitation facilities
have health implications
The poor who already cannot afford quality health
care face a double jeopardy
Access to water impacts enrolment in school by the
The Water sector is also a national policy focus – GPRS
& MDGs
The Research/Project Approach
• The project aims at identifying risks related to a lack
of transparency and integrity and their potential
negative impacts on water supply performance.
• Comprised two phases:
– The Assessment / Survey phase (2009 - 2010)
– Advocacy Phase (2011)
Sectoral Mapping Exercise
• Sector-related expertise available within the
national chapter
• Sector-related studies and research carried out by
• Sector-related projects/activities carried out by
• List of existing and potential partners with expertise
in the sector and/or interest in anti-corruption work
• Donors supporting work in the sector
• Journalists and other members of the media
potentially interested in the programme
The First Phase
• Identification of key stakeholders in the water
• Consultative meetings with key stakeholders.
• Establishment of a Steering Committee
• Preparation of water sector diagnosis
• Case studies – Madina & Nima (GAR), Ahoe &
Adaklu Aboadi (VR), Bekwai (AR)
• Community meetings on the case studies
• Validation workshop on National study
Rev 1: Broader Governance Issues
• The basis of Ghana’s governance is the 1992 Constitution
which emphasises
– transparency,
– integrity,
– Accountability; and,
– Participation in all spheres of development.
• Several Acts & Regulations aimed at ensuring transparency,
– Audit service Act 2000;
– Asset Declaration Act 1998;
– Public Procurement Act 2003;
– Financial Administration Act 2003,
– Whistleblower Act 2006; and
Rev 2: Broader Governance Issues
• The media is the most free in Africa and has been at
the forefront in the fight against corruption.
• The establishment of state institutions like the CHRAJ,
the SFO (EOCO) and Office of Accountability (Research
Unit at the Castle) seek to curb corruption
• The formation of Ghana Integrity Initiative and the
Ghana Anti-corruption Coalition (public, private and
Civil Society Organizations) to focus on the fight against
• However, the general perception is that corruption is
prevalent and a serious problem in the country.
The Current Situation - Urban
• Most urban communities have access to pipe-borne
• However, some of these communities, even in
Accra, do not have access to water delivery
• Even those who have access to water delivery, it is
irregular and unsatisfactory
• Yet, water tariffs are relatively high and
unaffordable by poor urban communities
• Illegal connections to the systems and inability to
collect water tariffs compound the problems of
urban water supply.
The Current Situation - Urban
• Sanitation in the cities has become a major problem
due to lack of proper planning and enforcement of
building regulations
• Natural water bodies and choked gutters breed
mosquitoes, resulting in high rates of malaria
• Women and children are the worse affected.
The Current Situation - Rural
• Rural communities depend on water from natural
sources such as rivers, streams, etc. as well as wells
and boreholes.
• Rural communities, unlike the urban communities,
are required to contribute to the cost of the systems
and maintain them.
• Rural water sources are more reliable, especially
when the rains are regular but are less hygienic.
The Current Situation - Rural
• Some of the water sources have problems of
taste, high levels of flouride, etc.
• In the rural communities, there is virtually no
sanitation facilities or limited facilities
• Malaria is a problem in the rural areas due to
ignorance of, and non-adherence to, hygienic
practices & poverty.
• Guinea worm (a water-borne disease) is also
prevalent in some rural communities,
requiring serious attention to avoid infection.
Country Data
•Total Land size
•Pop. Density
Average 79.3
•Total Pop. 2005
•Total Pop. 2015 (Projection)
•Pop. Growth 2005-2015
21.4 million (Urban 46%, rural 54%)
28.1 million (Urban 49.6%, rural 50.4%)
Urban 4.6%, rural 1.5%
•No. of Settlement (2000)
Urban 366; rural 88,290 (below 5000
•GDP (PPP) (USD/capita) 2009
USD 1452 (country ranking: 140)
•% below poverty line (2005/6)
•% below extreme poverty line
Gen. 28.5%; urban 10.8%, rural 39.2%
Gen. 18.2%; urban 5.7% , rural 25.6%
•Level of poverty (USD/capita)2005/6
•Level of extreme poverty (2005/6)
USD433, urban USD 563, rural USD 332
USD 314
•Water supply coverage, 2007
•Sanitation coverage, 2007
Urban 59%, rural 53%
Urban 40%, rural 32%
Country Data Contd
Under five mortality, 2006
Gen. 111, urban 106, rural 114
Corruption Perception Index (2008/9)
3.9 (ranking 67th out of 180 countries)
Human Development Index 2008
Index: 0.533; (ranking 135th out of 177
National Investment in the water sector
2004 – 118 billion cedis (USD 13.1 million)
2006 – 882 billion cedis (USD 95.9 million)
2007 – 1144 billion cedis (USD 117.9 million )
Sources: GSS 2005, 2007; Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2006,; UNDP 2008
GII 2008
Exchange rate 1USD = 9000 cedis(2004), 9200 cedis (2006), 9700 cedis (2007)
Water Resources Situation
Renewable water resources
2637m3/capita (2002)
Water Scarcity Level
Well below the water scarcity level, but
locally water scarcity may occur
Trend in Water scarcity situation
Water availability is reducing
Regional Variation
Regional variation in water scarcity is
Water distribution (2000
Agriculture 655 million m3 (66%)
98 million m3 (10%)
Domestic use - 235 million m3 (24%)
Proj. Dmd for consumptive water (2020)
Proj. Dmd for hydropower generation
5 billion (12% of surface water)
378,430m3 (22% of surface water)
Trans-boundary basins and related
Volta Basin – Ghana, Togo, Burkina Faso,
Ivory Coast, Benin
Bia Basin - Ghana and Ivory coast
Water Resources Situation
• Domestic and industrial urban supplies are based
on surface water (Some with quality problems due
to mining activities).
• In rural areas, groundwater is used in hand pump
schemes (200,000 boreholes and hand dug wells
country wide).
• Rainwater harvesting is becoming more common
• The main non-consumptive uses are hydropower
generation, inland fisheries and water navigation
Overview of the Water Sector
Access to improved water supply systems Overall 80%; urban 59%; rural 53%
% increase over previous five years (2000- Overall 1.85%; urban 0.38%; rural 3.38%
MDG water (2015)
Overall 78%; urban 91%; rural 69.5%
Regional Differences
Strong regional variations in access to
improved water exist ranging between
53% in Volta region and 95% in upper
West region
Differences in access in water between
rich and poor (MICS 2006)
On the average, 64% of poorest
households have access to improved
water supply against 96% of the richest.
•Access to improved sanitation (2006)
•% increase over previous 5 years 20002006
•Overall 60.7%; urban 82.6%; rural 45.3%
•Overall 60.7%; urban 1.18%; rural 3.33%
•MDG Sanitation (2015)
Overall 53%; urban 55.5%; rural 51.5%
•Progress with MDG’s in water and
•Meeting MDG’s for water and sanitation
may be feasible, but progress may be
limited by lack of resources and cost
involved in sustaining systems. Rural
sanitation coverage is lagging behind.
•Regional Differences
•Significant differences exist between
regions with average coverage ranging
from 17% to 87% with lowest coverage in
the three northern regions
Sources: MICS 2006, JMP 2009, CWSA SIP 2008, TREND/TPP, 2008
Access to improved urban water
12 hours of access to between 75 and
100 liters per capita per day
Access to improved rural water supply Access to between 20 and 60 liters of
water from pipe scheme, borehole
fitted with pump, hand dug well fitted
with pump, protected spring for
between 50-70% of the time with a lag
between breakdown and repair not
exceeding two weeks and within a
distance of not more than 500 meters
or within 15 min of walking distance.
Access to improved urban
Access to improved rural
Source: JMP (2008)
Access to improved toilet
facility within a house or from
a shared facility
Access to adequate excreta
disposal facilities-VIP at
household, a simple but
protected pit latrine, a pour
flush latrine, KVIP, Aqua Privy
or connected to a septic tank
Water Policies
• National Water Policy (2008)
• Aims at sustainable development of water
• Stresses the coordination between sector
institutions and encourages private sector
participation in the management of water systems.
• Anti corruption policies
• There are no special anti-corruption policies for the
WASH sector - same as those that apply for other
sectors in the country
Sector Legislations
Specific acts and legislations related to water and sanitation:
• Article 269 of the 1992 constitution, Local Government Act,
1993, The Statutory Corporations (Conversions to
Company) Act 1993 (Act 461), PURC Act, 1997, CWSA Act,
1998, WRC Act (1996), Water Use Regulation (2001),
Standard for Drinking Water Supply (1998) - GSB.
• The existing legislations as well as institutional
responsibilities need to be reviewed for possible gaps and
performance problems of the different organizations.
• This requires strong political commitment as it is clearly
necessary. For example, sanctions and rewards are missing
Sector Regulation
Weakness identified
Formal tariff setting is only established
independently for part of urban water supply
systems owned by GWCL.
Poorer sections end up paying more per liter
because they buy water from vendors at
higher price.
Equal access is established in the law, but in
practice is not the case, with the poorer
sections having less access
Quality guidelines are existing but not
monitored and not been adhered to in piped
water supply but also in sachet and bottled
Water sector Financing
Rural WS
Urban WS
Sub total
Rural WS
Urban WS
Sub total
Overall Total
Source: MOFEP 2004, 2006, 2007 budgets
Water Sector Financing
• Water sector financing depends on three main pillars;
Donors (90%), Payment of tariffs by users, modest
contribution from government .
• Grant funding from donors are managed by PMU financed
by the donors who work closely with RWSTs and MMDA’s in
project management, contract management.
• National funding for water service delivery by MMDA’s are
obtained from DACF and IGF.
• The contribution of NGO’s is largely unknown because it is
not captured in the budgeting process at national or local
Affordability, cost recovery, cost sharing
• Urban supplies: Tariffs paid by users are used:
– to recover cost,
– to meet operations & maintenance cost
– For repayment of investment cost.
• Tariff structure is based on progressive pricing,
allowing cross-subsidies from large users.
 GHC 0.66/ M3 (lifeline tariff)
 GHC0.91 M3 (excess 20M3)
 GHC1.10 (commercial tariff) making the poor pay higher
Affordability, cost recovery, cost
• Rural Supplies: Tariffs paid by users are used to meet O&M cost ,
major repairs, replacement and extension to new areas.
• 90% of construction cost is subsidized
• 5% contribution each by community and MMDA’s towards capital
cost of water supply systems
• Tariffs
Domestic rate: GHC 1.65 /M3
Commercial rate: GHC 1.85 /M3
• Estimate of family expenditure on rural/small town system range b/n
USD 0.94 – USD 2.76
• 90% of households pay for water through pay as you fetch or monthly
Funding Requirement
• An amount USD 1.49 billion would be required for
expansion of water supply to meet demand to 2020
(Sector Development Program – 2009).
• An amount of USD 811 million would be required to
meet the MDG on water in 2015.
• Average inflow of resources forms 35% of the level
that would be required annually.
• Total financial investment needed to achieve MDG
for rural water is USD 505 million.
• Donor pledge from 2008-2012 (USD 175 million)
leaving a gap of USD 330 million for the RWS.
Water Sector Governance
• Transparency – Measures for ensuring transparency in the
sector are established which include
• Regular reporting systems (financial reporting/project
• Regular meetings ,
• Regular auditing of accounts and publications and
documentation of the tendering process.
However, compliance is weak.
• Accountability - Accountability efforts have been upwards
through routine submission of monthly, quarterly, annual,
project completion and financial reports required by law and
project agreements.
However, processes for ensuring downward accountability is
very low.
Water Sector Governance
• User participation:
• This is a central theme in NWP but is very low.
• Users do not participate in decision making and meetings are
not held with users.
• Gender issues have duly been acknowledged in the
sector including the participation of women in decision
making. In the formation of watsan committees, at
least 3 members (7) of the watsan committees are
Water Sector Governance - Grand
• Single contractor buying and pricing all bidding
• Award of a number of contracts to the same contactor
under different names,
• Procuring entities making payment before due dates;
• Advancing funds for mobilization beyond the 15%
allowable limit,
• Over- invoicing, poor contract management,
• Poor training and working conditions of construction
workers and
• Shoddy work through the use of poor quality materials.
Water Sector Governance – Petty
Illegal connections,
Meter tampering,
Direct payment to meter readers and
Under reporting of daily sales by vendors
Illegal charges and/or over-invoicing of materials for
new connection
Rural Water Supply
Rural water supply coverage is estimated at 69% in 2006.
(17,280 boreholes, 4,236 hand dug wells, 185 piped schemes).
Considerable difference exist ranging from 52.7% in the Volta
region to 94.8% in the Upper West region.
The water quantities used seem to be on the low side and
below the standards that CWSA uses. Actual consumption are
8-10 liters for hand pumps and 8-15 for small town systems
(TREND /TPP – 2008).
NRW varies with systems (50% level found)
WATSANS and WSDB are semi autonomous voluntary
community members acting on behalf of the MMDA’s who are
the legal owners of the systems. WATSANS and WSDB are
recognized by MMDA’s but not legally established entities so
they cannot be legally prosecuted or controlled.
Rural Water Supply
Considerable waiting lines may occur at hand pumps at peak
hours and breakdown periods may take 3-4 weeks.
Small piped schemes with public stand posts usually operate 12
hours. In the wet season usage of hand pumps and small piped
schemes is lower as people revert to cheaper sources such as rain
water harvesting
Water quality standards are not implemented. Most systems
depend on relatively good quality ground water. Yet 20% of drilled
wells have iron and manganese problems and some face salt water
Cost &Efficiency
Construction cost are paid by donors or the government with 5%
each contribution of the community and the MMDA.
Running cost are paid by users through user charges.
Small town systems may cost USD 0.60 per M3
Integrity Analysis
Service provision
•Information is
Reporting to users
available about
is less well
procedures and
shared among
different actors.
•Reporting to users
is less well
•Lack of information
about unit cost of
services, sector
standards and
quality measures
Cont’d (Integrity Analysis)
Technical and
financial audits are
being implemented.
The application
procedures and
sanctions are weak
(due to challenges),
monitoring of
procurement and
selective bidding
Technical and
financial audits are
not implemented.
Complaints are
dealt with the
watsan committees
Cont’d (Integrity Analysis)
Anti corruption
Participation of users
Control mechanisms are in
place as clear procedures
are included in the project
implementation manual
Control mechanisms are in
Users are consulted in the
process and need to take
action as a demand
responsive approach is
Users/CSO’S are not
involved in the
procurement process.
Public do not participate
in decision making.;
Involvement of public in
tariff setting is yet to be
fully realized.
Staff are requested to sign
a code of conduct
User Perception
• Some interference from politicians and traditional leaders
in decision making in the Watsan and WSDB.
• Revenue collectors may not deposit all the money they
• Powerful board members can illegally borrow money from
the account and even forget to repay.
• Vendors at stand posts without meters can under report
• Remote communities are susceptible to cheating - a spare
part could not be procured from a regional distributor but
only the Zonal center which involves significant transport
Urban Water Supply
Coverage (MICS 73% of the urban population have access to pipe borne water of
which 43% obtain water outside the house; 15% have access to
water from wells, 22.5% have access to natural sources; 8.4% have
access to tanker services; water vendor (3.4% ) and sachet/bottled
(4%). Only 15% of the poor have direct access to piped water
Design standards use 75-150 liters while actual consumption is 5060 liters. Poorer sections of the community have a much lower
consumption level. GWCL current average output is 551,000m3/ per
day as against daily demand of 939,000/ M3
Most of the design systems are over 30 years old and cannot cope
with increase in water demand. Water is rationed to many
consumers. Some (25%) have 24 hours supply, (30%) have 12 hours,
five days a week, (35%) have water 2 days each week or less; (10%)
are without access to piped water
Urban Water Supply
Water quality is questionable as most of the supply is intermittent
and drainage problems are visible in many areas which may cause
contamination. Although PURC has issued some guidelines for
tankers, in practice the quality of water from tankers is not being
Cost and
AVRL makes an operation surplus which is handed over to GWCL. The
cost is GHC0.66. In 2001, the connected poor used 35 liters per capita
whilst those depending on other suppliers used 15 liters
NRW = 51.5%
GWCL’s management contract with AVRL has been terminated.
Majority of secondary providers are not strictly regulated.
Source: GLSS (2008), PURC (2001), JMP (2009), Nyarko et al (2007), TPP/TREND (2008) NWP
Integrity Analysis
GWCL (Water service
GWCL (Service
•Information is available
about procurement
procedures &
international tendering
is a condition of ESA.
•Reporting to users is
less established.
•Getting a connection is
cumbersome giving
room for corruption
Information is available
about the performance
of AVRL through its
annual report to GWCL.
Information on tariff
are published and
available in AVRL offices
Reporting to users is
less established
Integrity Analysis
•Technical and financial
audits are being
•The MWRWH has
procurement evaluation
unit but have staff
•Application of
sanctions & procedures
are weak; Inadequate
monitoring of
procurement and
selective bidding.
Technical and financial
audits are being
implemented and
include audits by GWCL
and PURC.
AVRL has a consumer
service which handles
PURC has a complaint
section and routinely
organizes interactions
with consumers
Integrity Analysis
Anti corruption
Control mechanisms are
in place and clear
procedures are included in
the conditions that ESA
apply for providing loans.
Staff are requested to
sign a code of conduct and
transparency rules and
regulations apply to
different actors
•Control mechanisms are
in place and clear
procedures are included in
the management
agreement b/n GWCL
•Staff are requested to
sign a code of conduct and
transparency rules and
regulations apply to
different actors.
Public can only participate
through its public rep.;
GWCL has a code for
public hearings but not
strictly applied;
Users/CSO’s not involved
in decision making.
Public can only participate
through its public rep.;
Involvement of public in
tariff setting is yet to be
fully realized.
• The research /risk mapping phase has been
completed and the report is being printed.
• Due to the delay in the advocacy phase not much
progress has been made so far with regards to real
• However, informal influence and awareness raising
through various stakeholder meetings and feedback
in the community have been achieved
• Partnerships and working relationships established
• A non-functional borehole in Adaklu Abuadi
• Publication of reports by water committees for
community members
• Organization of regular meetings by water
committees for users to enable them participate in
decision making
• Publication of price list of spare parts and charges
by area mechanics for water committee to ensure
• Proper record-keeping, including obtaining receipts
for spare parts purchased by area mechanic
• Difficulty in accessing relevant data due to unavailable
records or reluctance to provide information needed.
• Suspicion of GII’s intention by some stakeholders
• Most anti-corruption work has taken place on national level
and not at the local level.
• Inadequate networking and advocacy on corruption in
service delivery
• Inadequate information and data on what happens at the
decentralised level, which sets new challenges for
addressing corruption and improving transparency and
accountability in the sector.
• Establishment of fair wages commission and single
spine pay structure may lead to payment of realistic
salaries and living wages
• Since 2003, a number of laws have been enacted to
strengthen transparency and accountability
although many of them are not enforced;
• Anti-corruption institutions and CSOs educating the
public to eschew greed and be loyal to the state
• Some attempt at introducing policies such as LEAP
to address poverty and improve the living
conditions of people.
• There is the need to streamline and strengthen anticorruption tools and the capacity of sector agencies to
implement these tools.
• There is also the need for donors to introduce anticorruption clauses in all cooperation agreements, train
their own staff or local staff to put these policies into
practice and communicate on related activities and
progress made,
• Donors too should adhere to the highest standards of
information disclosure and consultation for all water
projects they support, put in place adequate
monitoring mechanisms and enforce effective sanctions
against corrupt employees and contractors.
• There is the need to create anti corruption awareness
and systems within public organizations so that they
can cooperate with civil society effectively to ensure
that corruption can be prevented from occurring or
dealt with adequately when it occurs.
• There is also the need to institutionalize the
involvement of a representative of civil society at each
of the levels of public procurement.
• There is the need to increase access to information to
the public on the operations of the utility providers by
publicizing utility accounts, public expenditure reviews
and audit information, budgets, contracting
arrangements and annual report.
• Involving users in decision making, tariff setting etc. to
ensure that beneficiaries are empowered to play a
meaningful role in the management of water resources,
from the design to the implementation and supervision
of WRM projects.
• Strengthen complaint mechanisms for users and provide
adequate whistle blowing protection to promote
meaningful citizen participation.
• There is the need to strengthen monitoring and
oversight mechanisms such as oversight committees,
ombudsman offices, complaint offices, etc.
• Lack of transparency and integrity in aid promotes
corruption, which poses a threat and has
devastating consequences on poverty reduction and
• With regards to water supply, corruption increases
the risks that resources are lost thus affecting
adequate access of basic services to the poor.
• Thus, there is a need to strengthen accountability
mechanisms and institutions of oversight and the
sanctioning of violators to ensure clean
infrastructure projects and water delivery.
• Thank You for your attention