Fishery products student

Fishery / aquaculture products
„Definition” –
(EC) Regulation No 853/2004
• All seawater and freshwater
– (except for live bivalve molluscs,
live echinoderms, live tunicates
and live marine gastropods, and all
mammals, reptiles and frogs)
• whether wild or farmed and
• including all edible forms, parts
and products of such animals
Consumption of fish and fishery products
Seaside countries
World: Mean is about 16 kg per capita
Norway, Spain: 48 kg per capita
Japan: 65 kg per capita
Hungary: 3.5 kg per capita
Consumption of fish and fishery products
• World consumption: 130 million tons
• 70% natural water (seawater)
• 30% aquaculture (“Aquaculture is the farming of aquatic
organisms, including fish, molluscs, crustaceans and
aquatic plants.”)
General food safety aspects of
fishery products
• Healthy but!:
• High water content: 78-82%
• pH: ≥ 6.0 → perishable
• Can be contaminated by microbes,
parasites harmful to human consumers
• Can contain residues and other chemicals
Hygiene requirements of
production and distribution
– vessels (Reg. 853/2004)
• Vessels:
– Must be constructed so as not to cause contamination
of products with bilge-water, sewage, smoke, fuel,
oil/grease or other substances
– Surfaces must be suitable corrosion-resistant, smooth
and easy to clean
• Vessels are to preserve fresh fishery products for
more than 24 hours
– Must be equipped with hold tanks/containers for
storage the products at appropriate temperature
– Tanks must incorporate devices for achieving a
uniform temperature throughout the tanks (6 hours
after loading ≤3°C; 16 hours after loading ≤0°C)
Hygiene requirements of production
and distribution – vessels (Reg.
• Freezer vessels:
– (bleeding, heading, gutting, removal of fins
 freezing and wrapping/packaging)
• Equipment to lower and maintain ≤-18°C
core temperature
Drinking-water or clean seawater used
Hygiene requirements of production
and distribution – vessels (Reg.
• Factory vessels:
– (bleeding, heading, gutting,
removal of fins, filleting, slicing,
skinning/shucking, mincing or
processing  chilling, freezing
and wrapping/packaging)
• Must have
– A receiving area for taking fish
on board which allow the
successive catch to be separated
– A hygienic system for conveying
fishery products to work area
Hygiene requirements of production
and distribution – vessels (Reg.
• Factory vessels:
• Must have
– Work area large enough and
prevents contamination
– Storage areas for the finished
– A separate place for packaging
– Equipment for disposing waste
directly into the sea or into a
watertight tank
– Equipment, instruments and
surfaces are suitable corrosionresistant, smooth and easy to
Hygiene requirements of production
and distribution – vessels (Reg.
• Factory vessels where fish are
headed and/or gutted on
– Processes have to carried out as
soon as possible after capture
– Must be washed immediately and
thoroughly (potable water, clean
sea water)
– The viscera must be removed as
soon as possible
– Livers and roes (intended for
human consumption) must be
preserved under ice, at a
temperature of melting ice or be
Hygiene requirements after loading
and establishments on shore
• Heading and gutting must be carried out hygienically as
soon as possible after landed
Products must be washed thoroughly with potable water
Filleting and cutting must be carried out so as to avoid
contamination or spoilage of fillets and slices
 must be wrapped/packaged and chilled
Containers used for the dispatch or storage of
unpackaged products stored under ice must ensure that
melt water doesn’t remain in contact with the products
Equipment to lower and maintain ≤-18°C core
Stores must be equipped with temperature recorder
Preservation methods - spoilage
• Spoilage is usually caused by Pseudomonas
species, Shewanella putrefaciens and
(Acinetobacter and Moraxella –chilled!)
Spoilage  proteins of fish  histamine and
other biogenic amines  scombrotoxicosis
(“scombroid fish poisoning”; sardine, mackerel,
tuna): vomiting, diarrhoea, rash, urticaria,
nausea (allergic reactions)
Prevention: fast chilling to ≤4°C
Preservation methods - spoilage
• Spoiled fish:
• malodorous with acid, bitter, ammoniac character,
covered by sticky, yellowish brown mucus
The scales can be elevated and removed
the skin is wrinkled, discoloured and also can easily be
The eyes are fade, opalescence, hollowed
The gill cover is elevated, red-brown, the gills are dry,
greyish or sticky
The musculature is loose, soft and reddish brown
(discoloured), friable
the abdomen is deformed, the anus is opened, often
The viscera are loose, light coloured, the mucosa is
Preservation methods
• Salting
• Smoking
• Marinading/marinating
• Canning (canned fish in oil)
• Most commonly dry salting (herring, sardine)
• After capture, gutting → salting (20kg
NaCl/100kg fish) →
• Storage in staunch/hermetically closed barrel
• Ripening/aging (25-35 day)
• Spoilage caused
– In barrel: by halophil bacteria, anaerobes,
– Lightly salted products: lactic acid bacteria,
psychrotophic bacteria
– Dry, salted products: moulds
• CAVIAR: is the processed, salted roe of
certain fish, mostly the sturgeon (black) and
the salmon (red).
Cold smoking (20°C, few days)
Hot smoking (90-120°C, few hours)
1. melt/defrost the fish
2. classification
3. washing
4. salting in salt solution (30-120 minutes) → 1.2-2%
salt concentration
5. string/hanging
6. smoking
7. drying by air
8. packaging
• Phases of hot smoking:
– Drying of surface layers of fish – 40-60°C, 90120 min
– Heat treatment/cooking in hot smoke – 90120°C, 50-60 min
– Smoking in dense smoke – 80-105°C, 30-90
• Preservation method based on using salt
and vinegar solution
• Special taste, tissues become tender, soft
• Cold or hot marinading or combined with
1. Cold marinading/marinating
• Raw material: fresh, frozen, salted filleted fish
Treated with 3-5% NaCl solution (30 min)
Ripening in 6% vinegar and 10% NaCl solution
for 3-4 days at 10-15°C
Packaging into can, bottles or barrels and
Filled up with 2% vinegar 4-6% NaCl solution
and sugar, spices and onion are added
Shelf-life: few weeks – few months
2. Hot marinading/marinating
Raw material: herring, eel, lamprey, cod, etc.
Heading, gutting, washing
Salting with 3-5% NaCl solution
Heat treatment in solution containing 1-2% vinegar, 68% NaCl and spices at 80-85°C for 10-12 min
Chilling with water shower
Filled into glass, plastic or metal container and
Solution containing 2% vinegar, 3% NaCl and 4-5%
gelatine is added
Shelf-life: chilled for few month
3. Crumbed marinade
• Raw material: fillet of herring, cod, mackerel,
lamprey, flat-fish (dab), etc.
Heading, gutting
Roll the fish in the flour
Heat treatment in oil at 160-180°C for 5-12 min
Solution containing 2-3.5% vinegar, 3-5% NaCl,
spices and sweetener is added
Shelf-life: longer than the others
Canning (canned
fish in oil)
• Raw material: sardine, eel,
tuna, etc.
Heading, gutting
Classification in salt solution
Filled into can and
Oil is added
Ripening in can for 1-2 years
Official control on production,
distribution and fishery products
• According to Regulation (EC) No 854/2004
laying down specific rules for the
organisation of official control on products
of animal origin intended for human
Control on production and
• Production and distribution must be
controlled by official veterinarian regularly
from time to time
• Vessels, establishments on land, fish
auctions, wholesale markets, conditions of
storage and transport, in particular
according to the followings:
Control on production and
• a, On vessels the cleanliness of establishments, their
facilities and equipments, and staff hygiene (at the port)
b, regular check on hygiene conditions of landing and
first sale
c, in case of establishment on land:
– Whether the conditions of approval are still fulfilled
– Whether the fishery products are handled correctly
– For compliance of hygiene and temperature requirements (GHP,
technological and staff hygiene)
• d, check of the conditions of storage and transport
Official control on fishery products
• A. Organoleptic examinations
• B. Freshness indicators
• C. Histamine
• D. Residues and contaminants
• E. Microbiological checks
• F. Parasites
• G. Poisonous fishery products
Official control on fishery products A. Organoleptic examinations
• Random organoleptic checks must be carried out
by the food business operator at all stages of
production, processing and distribution.
Aim of these checks is to verify compliance with
the criteria.
Competent official veterinarian must check
during landing/loading or before distribution
every batch to verify whether satisfactory or not
for human consumption (organoleptic
examination with sampling if necessary)
Official control on fishery products B. Freshness indicators
• When the organoleptic examination reveals any doubt as
to the freshness of the fishery products, samples may be
taken and subjected to laboratory tests to determine the
levels of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) and
trimethylamine nitrogen (TMA-N).
The criteria laid down in Reg. (EC) No 2074/2005: 2535mgN/100g.
When the organoleptic examination gives cause to
suspect the presence of other conditions which may
affect human health, appropriate samples are to be
taken for verification purposes.
Official control on fishery products C. Histamine
• Random testing for histamine is to be carried out by the
food-business operator to verify compliance with the
permitted levels laid down in Reg. (EC) No 2073/2005.
Food category
Sampling plan
where the
Fishery products from fish species
associated with a high amount of
histidine (mackerel, herring, anchovy,
placed on
the market
during their
Fishery products which have
undergone enzyme maturation
treatment in brine, manufactured
from fish species associated with a
high amount of histidine
placed on
the market
during their
Official control on fishery products D. Residues and contaminants
• Fishery products can not contain residues
and contaminants such amount which is
higher than lay down in Reg. (EC) No
Official control on fishery products E. Microbiological checks
• Fishery products can not contain microorganism dangerous to human health
• (No criteria for fishery products in
Official control on fishery products F. Parasites
• Visual inspection associated with self-control
system for parasites is to be carried out by the
food-business operator according to Reg. (EC)
No 2074/2005
Inspection have to be carried out of
representative samples
Official control of fish and fishery products based
on random sampling method for invest the
presence of parasites
Official control on fishery products G. Poisonous fishery products
• Checks are to take place to ensure that the
following fishery products are not placed on the
1. poisonous fish of the following families are
not placed on the market: Tetraodontidae,
Molidae, Diodontidae and Canthigasteridae; and
2. fishery products containing biotoxins such as
Ciguatera or other toxins dangerous to human
Fishery products are to be declared unfit for
human consumption if:
• 1. organoleptic, chemical, physical or microbiological
checks or checks for parasites have shown that they are
not in compliance with the relevant Community
2. they contain in their edible parts contaminants or
residues in excess of the limits or at levels where the
calculated dietary intake would exceed the acceptable
daily or weekly intake for humans;
3. they derive from poisonous fish, fishery products
containing biotoxins
4. the competent authority considers that they may
constitute a risk to public or animal health or are for any
other reason not suitable for human consumption.
Inspection of live, fresh and frozen fish;
declaration of fitness for human consumption
• Fish must be inspected by official
• Batch inspection
• In case of suspicion on presence of
infectious or parasitic disease, incidence of
pathogen microbes, residues or toxins 
• Detailed inspection
Inspection of live fish
• Veterinarian inspection have to be carried
out particular on:
• Viability and general health status
• Presence of infectious or parasitic disease
• Injuries and organoleptical changes
Inspection of live fish
• Fish is viable and healthy if:
• Gills open and close rhythmically (rhythmic
Movement of muscle is active
In water swim agile
Skin, scales are intact
No sign of disease
Appropriate/typical smell
Inspection of live fish
• Live fish is not fit for human consumption:
• a, Spring viraemia of carp (SVC), Viral haemorrhagic
septicaemia (VHS), Infectious haematopoietic necrosis
b, in case of following diseases and extensive or
disgusting changes:
– Fish pox (carp pox/warts ), Saprolegniosis (water mould
disease), "ich" or "white spot disease,„ (Ichthyophthirius
– Presence of tapeworm/ round-worm,
– Flukes (Monogenean flukes are primarily parasites of gills, skin
and the oral cavity, intestine, ovipositor and urinary tract)
– Leech infection
– Presence of other external parasites in high amount
– Lesion of skin (ulcerated dermatitis, wound, mechanical injury)
– Malodour in live
Inspection of fresh fish
• Have to be kept at the temperature of melting ice
Fish flesh/meat is not frozen but spoilage is much more
Veterinarian inspection have to be carried out particular
– Freshness
– Injuries
– Sign of spoilage
• Have to be checked:
Skin, mucus, scales
Fins, gills
Abdomen, intestines
Inspection of fresh fish
Not fit for human consumption:
The musculature is infected with bacteria pathogens for humans,
Presence of parasites in liver or muscle
Same diseases as in case of live fish
Following extensive or disgusting changes:
Ruined (except it was due to the lack of oxygen)?
The skin is wrinkled, ruptured
Scale is disordered, loose, easily can be removed
The eye-ball is withdrawn, or prolapsed or covered by an unspecified layer or the
cornea is dull, greyish
Gills are greyish-red, or dirty-brownish-green, definitively mucilaginous, still evilsmelling even after washing
The surface of fish is mucilaginous and smelling
The musculature is greatly discoloured, non-elastic, keep the fingerprint, the wall of
abdomen can be easily ruptured
Rotting, stuffiness
Intoxicated, having malodour related to foreign material, or chemical
contamination, or level of residues are higher than the MRL
The histamine content higher than the prescribed threshold value
If the fish was treated with antibiotic or other drug and is caught within the
withdrawal period
Inspection of frozen fish
Have to check frozen and defrost also:
Serous membrane
Cut surface
Musculature (colour, dryness, flexibility)
In case of marine fish the presence of parasite
of muscle (5 fish/batch)
Inspection of frozen fish
Not fit for human consumption:
If the animal was apparently diseased before freezing
It was spoiled before freezing
It was re-frozen
Infected with pathogen microbes
It contains facultative pathogen or saprophyte bacteria above the
threshold value
Presence of extensive malodour for any reason
Any of the following abnormalities can be detected in extended or
disgusting forms:
The skin or the surface of section is contaminated or dried out
The skin is ruptured and detached from the musculature or it is easily
The gill has malodour after defrosting
The musculature is easily ruptured and malodorous
The musculature is dull and discoloured (yellowish-grey)
Intoxicated with dangerous chemical or other foreign material or if it
contains any kind of contaminating chemical substance or residue above
the predetermined threshold level or it is intensively malodorous by
chemical substance
The histamine concentration is above the threshold value depicted in