USDA History of Using Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment Alan Green IAEA Forum Lima, Peru November 27-30, 2012 Phytosanitary Treatments • Agricultural commodities may become infested with plant pests and carry these pests across borders. • Strategies to mitigate the risk from pests include field measures, inspection, and phytosanitary treatments. • Treatments include: – Fumigation– methyl bromide – Heat – hot water, steam, hot air – Cold treatment – Irradiation Irradiation is a Promising Treatment • It is effective against a wide range of pests. • It has little impact on the commodity quality. • Together, these provide: – A great alternative to the use of methyl bromide. – An excellent treatment for commodities for which no treatment exists. – A simple alternative to complex systems approaches. – An attractive option for commodities that are damaged by other treatments such as heat. USDA is Facilitating the Use of Irradiation • Supporting research. • Developing regulations, policies, agreements, and standards. • Establishing programs in the US and overseas. Regulations • October 23, 2002: Overall requirements for irradiation as a quarantine treatment (Closely followed ISPM 18) • January 27, 2006: Established generic doses for all insects (400 Gy) and for fruit flies (150 Gy). • 2007-Present: – Approval of importation of irradiated fruit from several countries. – Establish pest specific doses. Relative Tolerance to Irradiation • High tolerance – Apple, cherry date, guava, longan, cantaloupe, nectarine, papaya, rambutan, raspberry, strawberry, tomato • Medium tolerance – Apricot, banana, cherimoya, fig, grapefruit, kumquat, loquat, litchi, orange, passion fruit, pear, pineapple, plum, tangelo, tangerine • Low tolerance – Avocado, cucumber, grape, green bean, lemon Regulations: Required Doses (Gy) Generic Dose: All fruit flies of the family Tephritidae 150 Generic Dose: All insects except adults and pupae of the order Lepidoptera 400 Rhagoletis pomonella 60 Anastrepha ludens, Anastrepha obliqua, Anastrepha suspensa 70 Conotrachelus nenuphar 92 Anastrepha serpentine, Bactrocera jarvisi, Bactrocera tryoni, Ceratitis capitata, Copitarsia declora 100 Bactrocera cucurbitae, Aspidiotus destructor, Bactrocera dorsalis, Cylas formicarius, Euscepes postfasciatus, Omphisa anastomosalis, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona 150 Cydia pomonella, Grapholita molesta 200 Cryptophlebia ombrodelta, Cryptophlebia illepida 250 Brevipalpus chilensis, Sternochetus mangiferae 300 Policies and Agreements: FEWP • Irradiation Treatment Framework Equivalency Workplan (FEWP). – Establishes a bilateral agreement between importing and exporting country. – Sets fundamental requirements to allow the use of irradiation for phytosanitary treatments. – Requires implementation of regulations for irradiation of agricultural commodities. – Provides for reciprocal trade in irradiated agricultural commodities. • 10 Countries have signed the Framework Agreement. Countries That Have Signed the FEWP • • • • • • • • • • Peru Philippines India Thailand Viet Nam Malaysia South Africa Mexico Pakistan Laos Other documents required by USDA • Operational (preclearance) work plan • Field pest risk mitigations (good agricultural practices) • Preclearance inspection procedures • Dosimetry systems • Treatment verification process • Post treatment safeguarding • Product labeling Operational Programs Preclearance– Treatment of foreign origin commodities in the country of origin. Port of entry– Treatment of foreign origin commodities in the U.S. • Key program components: – – – – – Inspection Dose validation Treatment oversight Safeguarding Documentation Program History • 2000 Hawaii: – Hawaii Pride facility opens on the Island of Hawaii. – Papaya, Sweet Potatoes, Longans, Carambola, etc… • 2007 India: – KRUSHK facility certified in April 2007. – Alfonso Mangoes. • 2007 Thailand: – Thai Irradiation Center (TIC) certified October 2007. – Isotron Thailand certified March 2008. – Mangoes, Mangosteens, Lychees, Longans, Rambutans, Pineapples. Program History (cont) • 2008 Viet Nam: – Son Son Corporation certified August 2008. – An Phu Irradiation JSC certified July 2009. – Dragon Fruit. • 2008 Mexico: – Sterigenics certified Sept 2008. – Benebion 2011 – Guavas, Mangoes, Citrus, Chile Manzano, etc… • 2009 Mainland US: – Sadex certified November 2009. – FTSI certified March 2011. – Various commodities for import and export. United States Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Protection and Quarantine Regulations: Eligible Commodities Ghana Eggplant, Okra, Pepper Hawaii Abiu, Atemoya, Banana, Breadfruit, Capsicum spp., Carambola, Cucurbita spp, Dragon Fruit, Eggplant, Jackfruit, Litchi, Longan, Mango, Mangosteen, Melon, Moringa pods (Drumstick), Papaya, Pineapple, Rambutan, Sapodilla, Sweet Potato, Tomato India Mango Malaysia Rambutan, Papaya Mexico Carambola, Clementine, Grapefruit, Guava, Mango, Chile Manzano, Sweet Lime, Sweet Orange, Tangelo, (Figs, Pitayah, Pomegranate) Pakistan Mango South Africa Grapes, Stone Fruit, Pears, Persimmons, Litchi Thailand Litchi, Longan, Mango, Mangosteen, Pineapple, Rambutan Dragon Fruit, Viet Nam Dragon Fruit, Rambutan, (Litchi, Longan) 14 Program Highlights • More than 40 million Kg of fruit treated to date. • Products have been well received, no known cases of consumer rejection due to treatment. • Opened new markets for at least 12 commodities. • No treatment failures. • No pest finds. Export Volumes: 2010 Export Volumes: 2011 Export Volumes: 2012 Program Highlights: Mexico • Mexico has led the programs in treatment volumes. – Steady increase over time. • Key reasons for success: – – – – – – – Well established fruit industry. Multiple commodities. Good logistics. Low transit costs to the US. Well managed irradiation facility. Good market for the fruit in the US. Lower USDA program costs. Future Expansion of Programs • First Port of Entry Program: Mangoes from Pakistan began June 2011. • Import/ export facilities in the US: – Gulfport, MS– Expected 2013. – US / Mexico border – several potential facilities. • Preclearance programs expected: – South Africa – Malaysia – Peru, Brazil, Philippines soon??? Export Program Future: USA Peaches to Mexico • Peach growers in the Southeast U.S. have been looking for an effective mitigation for export of peaches to Mexico for several years. • USDA worked with the peach growers, irradiation industry, and Chapman University to conduct quality and feasibility studies. • Peach quality was minimally impacted after irradiation at 1000 Gy. • Peach exports to Mexico expected to begin in June 2011. Looking Forward: Challenges and Areas for Improvement • • • • • • Inefficient supply chain/ logistics. Lack of economy of scale. Commodity Output Cost of USDA programs. Regulatory restraints. Fruit quality. Logistics and Handling Improvements • Locate irradiation facilities near ports and commodity growing areas. • Design and build product specific facilities to meet the needs of the fruit industry. • Standardize packaging to minimize costs associated with repeated dose mapping. • Create centralized commodity inspection centers. Increase Program Scale • Program costs should be considered on per unit basis: Cost per box or cost per Kg. • The more fruit treated, the lower the cost per unit. • Increase the number of commodities eligible for treatment. • Increase the volume of fruit treated. • Condense shipping season based on seasonality of fruit Potential Programmatic Changes • USDA programs can be expensive: – By law, full cost recovery for inspector to be stationed overseas is required. • Use Foreign Service Nationals or officers of the plant protection organization of the country of origin. • Delegate some oversight responsibilities to facilities. • Accreditation of third party inspectors or auditors. • Treatment in the U.S. Next 10 Years– Big Picture Ideas • Multilateral agreement that replaces current FEWP and workplan structure. – – – – Harmonization of program requirements. Oversight by country of origin NPPO or accredited entity Mutually accepted training. Increased trade in irradiated products between parties. • New or Re-fitted irradiators in US cities like Newark, Chicago, Seattle, or near the Mexican Border Conclusions • USDA support the use of irradiation for phytosanitary treatments! • Use of irradiation has increased steadily in the last 10 years and is expanding at an ever increasing rate. • Opportunities for improvement exist, USDA is working with the fruit and irradiation industry to take advantage of these opportunities. • We welcome input and suggestions for improvement.