Early Medieval Europe Collapse of Western Roman Empire Empire Divided (300’s AD) Byzantine Empire (Greek & Autonomous) Latifundias replace centralized rule Decentralized, self-sufficient (E,S,P) Isolated Kingdoms of Landlords/Serfs Constant Barbarian Invasions Empire collapses (476): Isolated, Primitive = Barbarian w/ Roman (Latin) influence Rise of Christianity (Unifying Force) First Phase: (Roman) conversion through original disciples (church fathers) Bishop of Rome (Pope) replaces emperor 2nd Phase: ‘Papal Primacy’ – divine authority of (rock) = Pontifex Maximus over Church Hierarchal Order - Church = key to salvation & protection Viceroys (bishops) – oversee church & state Monastic Culture – converts/scholars The New Economy Early Middle Ages = Manor & Serfdom Trade = Bartering/Exchange of Services Agricultural Developments Heavy Plow, Padded Horse Collar, and Three Field System Gradually Transform Economy & Challenge ‘System’ Impact of Agricultural Improvements Communal - Manorial Population Growth Surplus /Diversity Crops Markets - $ exchange Rise of Towns (Burgs) Merchant (Middle Class) Feudal Order? Protection to Guilds Banking & Investments Church & Profit Trade Routes Mediterranean, Baltic, Overland Feudal Strains Lord, Serf, Communes Kings support M.C. – offset power of nobles Towns = Independence – coin $, laws & juries, taxes, militias, foreign goods Feudalism Political & Social Order Feuda – land holding bearing obligation (Vassal) Franks – first centralized political power of Europe Hierarchal – mutual obligations Stirrup – mounted warrior ($) System becomes increasingly complex– loyalty / succession The Frankish Empire How were the Franks able to unify much of the Western Roman Empire? Why is Charlemagne’s reign viewed as the model for European feudal monarchies? Treaty of Verdun Eastern Empire (Byzantine) Division – linguistic, cultural, political Eastern Influence (Asia/Islam) Mediterranean Trade and Exchange Russian and Southern, Eastern Europe Greek influence Greater reliance on Bible (not Pope) Filioque - Western belief that Christ & God the Father one essence – not lesser Religion under Political Authority of Emperor England: Development of Common Law 1066: Norman Conquest (William of Normandy) Feudal Monarchy: Norman vassals, Fiefdoms, Loyalty Oaths, Sheriffs War, Gov’t, & Legal System Holding W. France & England Permanent Royal Bureaucracy (Barons) Representative (lower) bodies emerge “Common Law” – judicial reviews English Monarch unmatched, but challenged by Church (courts) & Barons (taxation) Magna Carta (1215) Which groups benefited most from the signing of the document? What will be the implications and lasting effects of the document? Royal vs. Papal Power Unam Sanctum (1302) Challenges to Feudalism (cont.) Dynastic Succession Liege Lords – Loyalty Taxation – Rents replace serfdom & heavier reliance on towns (MC) Rise of Trade & Guilds Autonomy & Power Lords – Advisors (Growing Influence) Use of Mercenary Warriors/Bastard Feudalism Continual Warfare ($) Introduction of Firearms: psychological to tactical Royal Monopolies & Centralized Authority Profit & Competition Church – Wealth, land, Motives (Crusades, Indulgences, simony) Demands for Reform/Questioning Authority/Nationalism 14th Century European Monarchs Political Power Struggles Monarchs vs. Nobility – Magna Carta (1215) Papal vs. Monarchs – “Unam Sanctum” (1302) Fiscal Pressures Introduction of Firearms & modern warfare Bastard Feudalism – Emerging Professional Armies Taxes and Monopolies Navigation – expand trade & “national” prestige Church Tithes vs. State Revenues Monarchial support for Middle Class (Profit Driven) Monarch’s Monopolize Products The Black Death and its Impact Population Growth and Crisis Over Population & Marginal Farming Lands 1347 Plague Strikes – Without Discrimination Disruption of Growing European Identity Psychological Strain – Value of Survivors Impact on Agriculture / Trade Supply & Demand – Production < Prices Profits < Labor (Natural cycle, but profit driven) New Techniques, Scale Back Lands, Labor Supply Enclosure: England’s Wool Industry Protectionism & Upheaval Statute of Laborers (1350) – wages/jobs Guild Restrictions – limit losses & competition Rural Unrest: Feudal ties & dues, taxes, tithes Urban: Wages, taxes, guild power Shift: Free men vs. return to feudal ties Hanseatic League – protect Northern trade Upheavals = Resentment/Uncertainty Value of Labor: Supply & Demand Devotion: Church response (mixed) = heavier reliance on faith Crisis in the Church 1309-1377 Avignon Exile Unam Sanctum & Royal Authority Fiscal & Moral Crisis 1378-1417 Great Schism 100 Years War (1337 – 1453) HW – Take Notes on . . . The Causes of the Conflict Its Impact on European States & Gov’ts Holy Roman Empire, England, France AP World History – Middle Ages Restructuring of Europe Decentralization - Medieval society Division of Christianity Revival of Cities Early Medieval Europe Unique cultural and political outlook Romanized w/ barbarian customs Religion = salvation (Active Life?) Cut off from Eastern Empire Growing threat of Islam (survival) Trade, science, philosophy, math, etc. Political Decentralization Mutual Obligations / Stability Brain Tickler How did the rise of the middle class and free towns impact Medieval European order? How did the emergence of nations challenge Papal authority (Church) and the traditional roles of the lords/nobility?