pendekatan psikodinamika dlm assessment

 Tindakan manusia ditentukan oleh tenaga
dalam manusia yang berkembang pada masa
kanak-kanak. Masa lalu yang paling
mempengaruhi t.l. manusia adalah:
 tahap perkembangan awal kanak-kanak
setiap manusia serta
 Relasi awal pengasuhan orang tua
The Ice Berg of Mind
Mind and World
The Mind
The World
(Other people & the environment)
The Superego
The parent (teaching)
The Ego
The Adult (thinking)
The Id
The Child (feeling)
Freud: 1920s
• The condemning or prohibiting part of the
mind = SE (Caplan: 1961)
• Develop trough internalization process
• Two types of SE:
– Permissive – little guilt (weak SE)
– Restrictive – guilt (strong SE)
• Over permissive
sociophaths / psychopaths
• Over restrictive
• Aspect of the person which is
primitive, the animal drive
• Shaped by early recording of feeling
of blame, fear and abandonment.
• The unloved child  fill a sense of
void by theft or kleptomania
• 2 types: Libido (sex) and Martido
(hating / killing / attacking)
• Govenrned by “pleasure principle”
• The I and me, the self.
• Part of the mind which thinks,
decides, plans and relate to the world
• Governed by “reality principle”,
exploring and testing, born of
• Placed between Id and Superego
Interaction and tension between the id’s
drives, the superego and the tension between
inner needs and the outer reality, in an
attempt to keep a balanced ego.
Fungsi Ego
 Menyeimbangkan kepribadian
 Mengelola kognisi, persepsi, perencanaan dan
pemecahan masalah
Menilai, membuat keputusanmenyesuaikan dengan
kenyataan dan mengendalikan impuls
Perkembangan kepribadian, mengatasi stress,
menggunakan ketrampilan dan mentolelir frustrasi,
kehilangan, rasa sakit dan kesedihan.
Menetralisasi tekanan superego dan dorongan id.
Memproduksi self-assestion, verbalisasi perasaan
dan mengarahkan usaha untuk mencapai atau
memberikan perhatian pada sesuatu.
Syarat Ego agar fungsional:
 Fleksibel
 Mampu menyesuaikan diri
 Resilient
 Berdasar kenyataan
 Stabil dlm menghadapi tekanan
 Toleran akan kecemasan dan kehilangan
Ketika Ego mengalami hambatan dlm menjalankan fungsinya, biasanya
akan akan menampilkan MEKANISME PERTAHANAN DIRI
Defence Mechanism
meringankan beban ego dari 3 tekanan besar (id, super ego dan realitas)
 Denial = attack from out side
 Repression = gets rid of instinctual
 Reaction formation = secures the ego
against the return of the repressed impulses
 Intellectualisation = develop a good
 Sublimation = direct the libido / martudo
goals to the higher goals
Transactional Analyses
Perkembangan Kepribadian
Birth – 1
Orak (hunger)
Trust VS Basic Mistrust
Level of confidence, being able to form attachment
and have needs met
2 to 3
Anal (excretion, muscular control, retention /
letting go
Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt
Who is in control and holding and letting go. If parent
is over controlling, child learns shame and doubt
4 to 6
Male child loves mother: has castration fears
Female child loves father: has penis envy;
jealous of mother
Initiative VS Guilt
Planning to act independently, avoiding if possible
guilt about relationship
5 - 12
Latency Period
Industry VS Inferiority
Focus on conscious memory and learning skills,
testing others, finding identity
13 – 18
> 19
Genital – beginning with puberty
Young Adult
Identity VS Role Confusion
Intimacy VS Isolation
Seeking satisfactory sexual relationships
Maturity to Old Age
Generativity VS Stagnation
Integraity VS Despair
Seeking to accept the past and one’s achievements,
the mix of good and bad time and valuing the
resulting self
Assessment Psikodinamika
 Focus on the interface of the ego with the world:
 How it is learning?
 Controlling?
 balancing with self-reliance and pride?
 The notion of defence mechanism is important to be
assessed  people who have difficulty in expressing
his emotions
 Transactional analyses provides a simple and
accessible way of looking at clients’ interpersonal
 Intervention oriented to offering relationship, listening
and reflecting with the client, joining the resistance,
so that they can get going with the problem solving
that needs to be done.
Suggested Questions
 Which developmental stage reflected in the behavior?
 Is superego overly rigid or permissive?
 Is there anxiety? How severe it is? What indirect support might
be helpful?
How dependent on independent is the person?
Are these sign of ego breakdown?
What ego defence mechanism are being employed or are
implicit in the person’s behavior?
Which ego defences need to be supported or strengthened?
Are they strong enough to allow some insight work?
What threat is the person experiencing? External (social) or
internal (psychological)?
Suggested Questions (continued..)
 What ambivalences are present?
 Are there some repetitive themes?
 Have there been past satisfactory relationships that need a
corrective relationship?
Which ego coping functions are working or not working for this
What are transactions with others like?
What contamination is there?
Does the person know what they should do and yet repeatedly
not do it?
Has the person had a figure with whom they have been able to
Have I considered the gender difference implications, especially
in terms of coping and independency?
 Western and white people culture base
 Meta narrative
 Control and dominant
 Social work is an expert
 No exchange or sharing is possible