E-government in Norway

E-Government and E-Services –
Norway 2013
for IBE250
February 2013
What is e-government? E-government is the use of
ICT to interact with citizens and other sectors.
• E-government uses IT and EC to provide:
– Convenient access to government information and
– Delivery and support of public services
– Efficient and effective method of conducting
business transactions
• Digital online access to information
• Online transaction services for citizens
A view of e-Government in Norway (2003)
•Community Administrations are taking a more holistic
approach for adopting e-Services into their communities.
•Communities use of e-services are only one level of egovernment. Often these e-services must be introduced
and integrated at community, county (fylke), state,
national and international levels.
Categories of e-government
G2C (Government to Citizen)
G2B (Government to Business)
G2G (Government to Government)
G2E (Government to Employee)
Categories of e-democracy
• C2C (Citizen to Citizen)
What is e-democracy?
• E-democratic perspectives on citizens stress the deliberative
qualities of the human being. It means that the citizens are
assumed to reflect on social conditions and express their
opinions in ongoing debates. This is an important difference to
the perspective of e-government which considers the citizens as
customers and clients with different needs and desires. The
purpose of e-government is to meet peoples demand concerning
e.g. social service in the most effective and economic way.
Citizen participation as conception and empirical
phenomenon is a condition of e-governance; in particular of a
vivid e-democracy since citizen participation seems as an
imperative for deliberation and real debate. – Signe Bock
Segaard (UIB)
• In e-democracy, it is not only the communication between
politicians and citizen (G2C) that is important, but also the
communication between citizens (C2C).
Major Categories of
Applications of E-Government
• Government-to-citizens (G2C)
– enabling citizens to interact with the government
from their homes
– Citizens Benefits:
• Find all the information on the Web
• Ask questions and receive answers
• Pay tax and bills
• Receive payments and documents
Major Categories of Applications
of E-Government (cont.)
– Governments (services)
• Disseminate information
• Conduct training
• Help find employment
– Electronic benefits transfer (EBT) is an example of
G2C applications
• System relies on a single smart card that
accesses cash and food benefits
• Recipients get e-transfers to bank account or
download to smart card
• Reduces fraud
Major Categories of Applications
of E-Government (cont.)
• Government-to-business and business–togovernment (G2B)
– E-procurement
• Large amounts of MROs and materials direct
from many suppliers
• Uses basically a reverse auction system
– E-auctions
• Auction surpluses from vehicles to real estate
• May use 3rd-party site
Major Categories of Applications
of E-Government (cont.)
• Government-to-government (G2G)
– Intelink—sharing information between intelligence
– Buyers.gov—general services administration
– Federal case registry—health and human services
– Procurement marketing and access network—small
business administration
• Government-to-employees— (G2E)
– Payment for employees
Vision from 2001:
The Stages of E-Government
Source: Deloitte Research (see Wong, 2001).
Implementing E-Government
• Stage 1: information publishing/dissemination
– Individual government departments set up their own Web
sites that provide:
• Information about them
• Range of services available
• Contacts for further assistance
• Stage 2: official two-way transactions
– Using legally valid digital signatures and secure Web
sites, customers:
• Submit personal information
• Conduct monetary transactions
– Customers must be convinced that:
• System keeps their information private
• System is free of piracy
Implementing E-Government (cont.)
• Stage 3: multipurpose portals
– Customer-centric governments enhance service
– Customer needs can cut across department
boundaries, portal allows customers to use single
point-of-entry to:
• Send and receive information
• Process monetary transactions across multiple
– Access to Government managed, centralized
Implementing E-Government (cont.)
• Stage 4: portal personalization
– Customers can access a variety of services at a single
Web site
• Customers can customize portals with their desired
• Requires sophisticated Web programming allowing
• Added benefit is that governments get a more
accurate read on customer preference
– Electronic services
– Non-electronic services
Implementing E-Government (cont.)
• Stage 5: clustering of common services
– All real transformation of government structure takes shape here
– Customers see a unified package instead of once-disparate
– Distinction between departments begins to blur
– Recognize groups of transactions instead of groups of agencies
• Stage 6: full integration and enterprise transformation
– Digital encyclopedia is now:
• Full-service center
• Personalized to each customer’s needs and preferences
– Old walls defining services are torn down
– Technology integrated across new government
structure bridging gap between front and back offices
Digitizing public sector
services Norwegian
eGovernment Program
Reference (Norwegian Government, 2012):
Need for coordination between subsectors
Principles of the eGovernment Program of Norway
1. Digital communication is to be the general rule for communication
with the public sector
2. The public sector is to provide unified and user-friendly digital
3. Login to public online services is to be simple and secure
4. Citizens and businesses will receive mail from the public sector in a
secure digital mailbox
5. Citizens and businesses will be notified via SMS text messages and
6. Necessary assistance is to be provided to citizens to ensure they will
be able to find and use digital services
7. Development of ICT solutions is to be viewed in the context of the
public sector’s work processes and organization
8. Protection of privacy and information security are to be safeguarded
9. Digitization measures of relevance for several services are to be
•MyID (level 3 secure)
•eID (level 4, e-signature)
•eID for suppliers
•national ID card (valid travel)
4.1 Work and Welfare (p.32)
by 2020. Pensions already on
new principles.
4.2 Health and care – pp.33-35
•Electronic prescriptions (e-resept)
•Automatic exemption cards
•Helsenorge.no portal
•National patient summary
•Smart buildings
4.4 Tax
4.6 Municipalities
6.7 Information on quality
Examples of Levels of Egovernment in Norway
State Level: www.regjeringen.no and
Fylke Level: www.mr-fylke.org
Community: www.molde.kommune.no