The active mental process of listening

advertisement




Understanding listening
Factors that affect listening
Principles and models for teaching listening
Common activities in teaching listening
2015/4/12
1
Understanding listening

What do people listen to ?
Diversified texts

Why do people listen?
To extract meaning
To maintain social relations
To be entertained

How do people listen?
The active mental process of listening
Psychological models of listening
Characteristics of the listening process
The active mental process of
listening
e.g. 1
a.
John was in the bus on his way to school.
b.
He was worried about controlling the math class.
c.
The teacher should not have asked him to do it.
d.
It was not a proper part of the janitor’s job.
e.g. 2
a.
b.
The king died.
The queen died of grief.
2015/4/12
3




Therefore, we can conclude that listening is
an active mental process involving stages as
the following:
sampling选验
predicting预见
testing验证
conforming or revising肯定或修正
2015/4/12
4
Bottom-up model and top-down
model

Bottom-up model

Top-down model

Interactive model
listeners construct meaning of what they hear based on
the sound they hear. If there are unfamiliar sounds,
listeners will find it very hard to keep up with the
speaker.
Listeners construct meaning using contextual clues and
background knowledge. Listeners understand better if
they know something about the speaker, the setting, the
topic and the purpose of the talk.
Interactive model – an integration of the above two
models.
2015/4/12
5
Characteristics of the listening
process
Spontaneity ---- people listen to spontaneous
speech without rehearsing
Context ---- share same background knowledge
Visual clues ---- help the understanding
Listener’s response ---- for most listening ( esp.
face to face communication)
Speaker’s adjustment
2015/4/12
6
Principles for teaching listening

Some general principles for teaching listening
Focus on process
Combine listening with other skills
Focus on the comprehension of meaning
Grade difficulty level appropriately

Principles for selecting and using listening
activities (p.141)
Common activities in teaching
listening



Pre-listening tasks should be used to stimulate the
appropriate background knowledge, provide learners with a
purpose of the listening activity and prepare them with the
language needed for understanding the message (e.g.
discussing the topic, brainstorming, presenting vocabulary,
sharing of related information).
While-listening tasks must focus on obtaining information,
checking comprehension, organizing information, further
study of the language in meaningful context.
Post-listening tasks must provide opportunities for students
to integrate what they learned from the text into their
existing knowledge and communicate with others using the
information obtained from the listening text.
Pre-listening activities 1
Pre-listening activities 2
Pre-listening activities 3
Pre-listening activities 4
While-listening activities 1
While-listening activities 2
While-listening activities 3
Post-listening activities 1
Post-listening activities 2
Post-listening activities 3






Answering questions
Discussions
Dictogloss
Role plays
Interviews
Debate