Some quick definitions Day 1 Input • Input, in listening, is the sound wave that reaches your ear. • Input can generally be any kind of stimulus: audio, video, pictures, touch, sound, smell, etc… • Modified input or selective input is what we tend to use in our classes. Phoneme • Phoneme refers to the smallest, basic unit of speech. • These are what you are most used to seeing in pronunciation guides /k/, /l/, /r/… Decode/Decoding • Decoding is the process of receiving, recognizing, and organizing language. • In listening, this means collection of the sounds into syllables, words, phrases, sentences, etc. Meaning-Building • Meaning-Building refers to the process of taking that which is recognized and applying meaning to it based on our personal understandings of the text, topic, and world around us. • This is what you use schema for…for the most part. Top-Down • This is the process of teaching/listening that relies on using what you understand of the world to understand the text. Bottom-Up • This is the process of teaching/listening that uses your knowledge of language units to come to an understanding of a text. Back Channel • Back Channel is the use of extra-linguistic methods to signal/provide feedback to the speaker. • Head nods, Uh huh, Yeh, Ok….