Journal Topic Essential Question: What are the main focal points for studying the cultures and ancient Greece and Rome? “The life which is unexamined is not worth living.” --Socrates At Your Desks… • Copy Homework: –Read and take notes on pp. 198-201 –Bring in 1st drafts on Thursday (with pencil, pen, highlighter) • Read and take notes on pp. 106-113 Extra Credit Assignment • Read one of the following selections from the textbook and, in a 3 paragraph essay, discuss the speaker’s view of Greek culture and the Greek way of life – The Funeral Speech of Pericles (pp. 180-188) – from The Apology (pp. 190-195) The Heroic Age • • (Mycenaean Era) Legends of Greek mythology are “born” – King Minos – Agamemnon (Trojan War) • Development of early Greek culture The Epic Age • Iliad and Odyssey created • Greek alphabet developed (alpha – beta) • Beginnings of Greek arts Political Contributions • City States (“polis”) – – – – Ex. Sparta and Athens Ruled by a king Separate but shared common cultural bond Called themselves Hellenes (descendants of Hellen – ancestor of sole “flood” survivor – see The Deucalion, p. 64) – Shared common social and religious institutions – Olympic Games established Political Contributions (cont.) • Athens and Sparta – Sparta – militarism, conservative culture, oligarchy (power and rule in hands of a few) • living a Spartan lifestyle meant you were sternly self- disciplined, rigorous, required little comforts or luxuries – Athens – established democracy (rule by the people), emphasis on culture and comfort Political Contributions (cont.) • Pericles and the Golden Age – – – • ruled Athens for 30 years “stressed middle course between extremists” patron of the arts, literature, philosophy Built The Parthenon (temple of Athena) The Parthenon Ruins in Greece Reconstructed in Nashville The Parthenon Artistic Contributions • Lyric poetry – Brief, intensely personal, emotional – Poems often set to music (lyre) [performance art] – Monody – poetry for a single voice – Choral – poetry for many voices (chorus) Artistic Contributions (cont.) • Greek Drama – Athenian playwrights: Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides The Tragedy consider questions involving: – • • • • human suffering free will moral responsibility limits of knowledge Contributions in Philosophy • Socrates (lover of wisdom) • the Socratic method – questioner explores the implications of another’s position in order to stimulate thinking/illuminate ideas Famous Quotes of Socrates • As for me, all I know is that I know nothing. Beware the barrenness of a busy life. • I am the wisest man alive, for I know one thing, and that is that I know nothing. • From the deepest desires often come the deadliest hate. • Let him that would move the world first move himself. • Wisdom begins in wonder. Contributions in Philosophy • • Plato (student of Socrates) Developed The Academy – (first institution of higher learning) The Grove of Plato Famous Quotes of Plato • Better a little which is well done, than a great deal imperfectly. • Courage is knowing what not to fear. For a man to conquer himself is the first and noblest of all victories. • Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge. • He who commits injustice is ever made more wretched than he who suffers it. Contributions in Philosophy • • • Aristotle (Plato’s student) Developed a comprehensive system of philosophy (included logic, morality, science, etc) Wrote The Poetics, an analysis of the principles of tragedy Famous Quotes of Aristotle • We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. • You will never do anything in this world without courage. It is the greatest quality of the mind next to honor. • I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who conquers his enemies; for the hardest victory is over self. • At his best, man is the noblest of all animals; separated from law and justice he is the worst.