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Midterm Practice Famous Fallacies, TFTD, Hurley 4.1 - 4.7 For the Midterm … I will provide you with a categorical proposition, like… All cars that are not Mazdas are cars with good jingles I’ll ask you for its quality (Affirmative) qualifier (‘All’) quantity (Universal) quantifier (‘All’) copula (‘Are’) distribution (Subject, but not predicate) letter name (‘A’) terms (‘cars that are not Mazdas’=Subject … ‘cars with good jingles’=predicate) 1 How many quantifiers are there? List them… 3: ‘All’, ‘No’, and ‘Some’ 2 How many qualifiers are there? List them… 4: ‘All’ for Universal Affirmative, ‘No’ for universal negative, ‘are’ for particular affirmative, ‘are not’ for particular negative. 3 Memorize distribution! All SD are P No SD are PD Some S are P Some S are not PD 4 Standard Form… Which is in standard form, and why? No Jimmy Johns subs are slathered in mustard (not this one … ‘slathered in mustard’ is an adjectival phrase, not a noun phrase … a phrase that names a class of objects) Some eyebrow tweezings are less than pain free procedures (this one … ‘less than pain-free procedures’ is a noun phrase that names a class of objects that overlaps the class of ‘eyebrow tweezings’) 5 Consider: No non-A are B (T) Contraposition a. Some non-A are B. (F) b. All A are non-B. (Und.) c. No non-B are A. (T) d. Some non-A are not B. (T) e. No non-B are A. (Und.) 6 Consider: All A are non-B. (F) Obversion a. All A are non-B. (F) b. All non-B are A. (Und.) c. No A are non-B. (Und.) d. No A are non-B. (F) e. Some non-A are not B. (T) 7 Consider: Some A are not non-B. (T) All A are non-B. a.Contraposition (T) b.Contrary (F) c.Conversion (T) d.Obversion (T) e.Contradictory (F) 8 Consider: Some non-A are B. (F) Some B are non-A. a. Subcontrary (T) b. Conversion (Und.) c. Contraposition (Und.) d. Conversion (F) e. Contraposition (F) 9 Assume Aristotle (Traditional standpoint). Consider: Some A are non-B. (F) Some A are not non-B. (F) a. Illicit, contrary b. Illicit, subalternation c. Subcontrary d. Illicit, subcontrary e. Contraposition 10 No S are P. (Aristotelian standpoint) After filling in the diagram … a.Area 2 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 1. b.Areas 1 and 3 are shaded. c.Area 1 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 2. d.There is an X in area 2. e.Area 1 is shaded, and there are no other marks. 11 All S are P. (Boolean standpoint) After filling in the diagram … a.Areas 1 and 3 are shaded. b.Area 2 is shaded, and there are no other marks. c.Area 1 is shaded, and there is a circled X in area 2. d.There is an X in area 2. e.Area 1 is shaded, and there are no other marks. 12 Shade area 2 and place an X in area 1. Which of the following would be valid inferences: a.shaded area 2. b.an X in area 3. c.an X in area 1. d.shaded 1. e.no X’s or shadings. 13 Shade area 1 and place an X in area 2. Which of the following would be valid inferences: a.shaded area 2. b.an X in area 3. c.shaded area 1, and X in area 2. d.shaded 1. e.no X’s or shadings. 14 Assume Aristotle (Traditional standpoint). Consider: No non-A are B. (T) Some non-A are not B. (F) a. Illicit, subalternation b. Illicit, contradictory c. Contradictory d. Illicit, subcontrary e. Conversion 15 Assume Boolean (Modern) standpoint. Consider: No A are B. (T) Some A are B. (F) a. Existential fallacy b. Illicit, contradictory c. Contradictory d. Illicit, subcontrary e. Conversion 16 Assume Boolean (Modern) standpoint. Consider: No A are B. (T) All A are B. (F) a. Existential fallacy b. Illicit, contrary c. Contradictory d. Illicit, subcontrary e. Conversion 17 Assume Aristotle (Traditional standpoint) All red sounds are rough flavors. Some red sounds are rough flavors. a. Existential fallacy b. Valid, contradictory c. Valid, subcontrary d. Invalid, subalternation e. Invalid, contrary 18 Know these Famous Fallacies: No Fallacy! Ad Hominem (abusive, circumstantial, you too!) Appeal to Pity (ad misericordiam) Appeal to Force (ad baculum) Appeal to the People (ad populum) Appeal to Unqualified Authority (ad vericumdiam) Faulty Dilemma (compare to ultimatum) Composition Division Weak Analogy Hasty Generalization 19 Know these sorts of definition… Real Genus-Difference Verbal Ostensive Operational Stipulative Reportive Enumerative Etymological Synonymous 20 Know the 3 theories of truth, and their general problems… 21 “There were only 2 people in the room at the time of the murder … we can, therefore, exclude the fact that there was a large crowd in the room at that time.” Is this a correct, or incorrect use of the notion of a fact? (incorrect … facts are facts … you exclude possibilities, not facts) 22 Identify the species, genus, and difference at work in these Genus-Difference definitions… An elephant is an animal with a trunk A laptop is a computer made to sit in your lap 22 (continued) Elephant = Species Laptop = Species animal Genus trunk Difference computer for your lap Genus Difference 23 Read section 4.7 on your own. You will have 4 sentences to translate, but none of them will involve converting a single statement into 2 categorical propositions. Good luck!