Interpersonal communication is: communication which establishes, affirms and/or negotiates relations between two or more people usually perceived as always oral in form, but written forms also help ‘manage’ interpersonal relations 1. ASSERTING 2. RECEIVING CRITICISM 3. RESOLVING CONFLICTS 4. APPLICATION: INTERPERSONAL SKILLS IN MEETINGS PART I ASSERTING at the heart of interpersonal communication refers to the manner by which you make explicit what you think about or want from another person acknowledges your rights as an individual and the rights of other people Non-judgmental description of behavior • “You failed to attend three important company meetings I have called for the past five months.” • “The awful attitude you’ve shown by failing to attend…” Disclosure of asserter’s feelings • “I feel offended by your failure to attend all three important company meetings I have called for the past five months.” • Note: Culture plays a big part in disclosure of feelings. Clarification of concrete and tangible effects of behavior on asserter • “You failed to attend all three important meetings I have called recently. This has resulted in the late submission of the company’s 2nd Quarter Sales Report.” GIVING FEEDBACK LISTENING MAKING REQUESTS AND GIVING DIRECTIVES Deliver your feedback clearly and appropriately: What is your feedback about? (Content) How will you deliver it? (Delivery) Describe the problem in a non-judgmental way. Criticize the action or item, not the person. Focus on what needs to be done. Be specific and concrete. Always be constructive. Check your facts. Do not embarrass. If appropriate, accept partial responsibility for the problem. Respect the other person’s right to respond. Feedforward. an assertion strategy silence or a pause is a form of assertion Two specific strategies in attentive listening: Paraphrasing – shows your desire to understand others Affirming – signals or implies respect for others’ ideas and turn to speak These are important assertion strategies – you ask others to do something for you You are likely to need to do these in the workplace regardless of your position and status PART II RECEIVING CRITICISM TWO STRATEGIES: Agree to the criticism Seek for more information Ask for specific examples. Describe a situation and ask whether it illustrates the problem. Paraphrase the criticism to focus on an outcome. Ask how you can improve. PART III RESOLVING CONFLICTS Act promptly. Begin by citing areas on which you agree. Schedule a meeting. Listen attentively. Focus on the problem, not the person. Brainstorm solutions. Formalize the solution. Implement the solution and set a date for follow-up. Three interpersonal functions of communication 1. ASSERTING 2. RECEIVING CRITICISM 3. RESOLVING CONFLICTS PART IV Application: INTERPERSONAL SKILLS IN MEETINGS Meetings reveal who you are Categories of meeting behaviour ◦ Task facilitating ◦ Group maintenance ◦ Self-oriented Does culture matter in Interpersonal communication? In interpersonal communication, the key term is respect: ◦ Respect for your right to speak, write or be silent ◦ Respect for others’ right to speak, write or be silent THANK YOU!