English Civil War

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Year 8
The English Civil War
King Charles 1 1625-1649
► What
was his family
name?
► Who was his father?
► Which religious group
did the Pilgrim Fathers
belong to?
► Of which Church was
Charles the head?
King Charles 1 1625-1649
Queen Henrietta-Maria
► Which
country did
Henrietta Maria come
from?
► Which religious group
did she belong to?
► Why do you think that
she could be
unpopular with some
people in England?
Religious groups.
►
►
►
►
Which religious group is
shown in this picture?
What did they believe in?
How can we tell they
belong to this group?
After reading the sheet,
write 4 facts about how
this group lived their lives.
The Roman Catholics.
The previous picture
► Can
you identify the picture on the previous
page?
► Clue – it is connected with the Vatican City.
► Where is the Vatican City and what is it?
► Who is the most important person in the
Vatican City?
► Write 4 facts about the beliefs of Roman
Catholics.
The Protestants.
► Who
is the secular
head of the Church of
England?
► Who is the spiritual
head? (look at the
picture)
Charles as King
► Which
church was Charles head of as king
of England?
► What had happened in 1605 which made
many people fear Roman Catholics?
Arguments with Parliament.
► King
James 1 had quarrelled with his
parliaments about many things. These
included, money, power, religion, Divine
Right and favourites. During his reign he
gained many enemies. Many of the MPs
were Puritans.
► After James’ death, the arguments
continued.
The Theory of Divine Right.
► What
do you understand by this term?
► How would it affect the way in which the
monarchs would rule?
► MONEY
► How does the government get money to
rule the country?
► How is that money collected?
Charles’ Personal Rule 1629-1640
► Why
did Charles decide to rule without a
Parliament?
► Could this happen now?
► Explain your answer.
► These 11 years are referred to as years of
tyranny by Charles’ enemies and as his
Personal Rule by those who supported him
The Personal Rule 1629-1640
► The
2 men who helped
to rule during the
Personal Rule were
► The Earl of Strafford
and Archbishop Laud.
Governing without a PARLIAMENT
► What
would be the greatest problems which
Charles would face?
► How did Charles raise money?
► Why would these actions upset people?
► The tax which caused most anger was Ship
Money
Ship Money
► What
was Ship money?
► Where was it supposed
to be collected from?
► Where did Charles
collect this tax?
► Why were people so
angry about this?
The Bishops’ wars
► Many
of the Scottish people belonged to the
_____________________ Church. Archbishop
_________ tried to force them to use the English
_____________ book.
► The Scots refused and there were two wars. As
there were no __________ in their church
organisation, these wars were known as the
‘________ _________.’ The English lost them and
Charles had to call a ___________ to pay for the
wars.
► Bishops’ wars; Parliament; Laud; Prayer;
Presbyterian; bishops;
War is close!
► The
Short Parliament
did not give Charles
what he demanded.
► The Long Parliament,
after the Second
Bishops’ War made
demands and refused
to give Charles money.
► Many MPs were
Puritans.
The Grand Remonstrance
► The
MPs drew up a long list of criticisms
about Charles. The king had had enough.
He decided to get rid of his critics by
arresting them in the House of Commons.
► Why do you think that this was not a good
idea?
The Attempted arrest of the Five
Members
► Charles
tried to arrest the 5 leading Puritan
MPs, Pym, Strode, Hollis, Hampden,
Hazelrigg
Charles fails!
► What
happened to Charles’ popularity after
his failure to arrest the 5 MPs?
► Charles left London in January 1642 and
would never return again as a free man.
► In AUGUST 1642, Charles set up his royal
standard in Nottingham and the Civil War
began!
Which side would you have joined?
► King’s
► Think
side
of as many
reasons as you can for
supporting the king.
► Think of any reasons
why you would not
support him.
► Parliament’s
side
► Why would you
support the
parliament?
► Why might you be
angry with what the
parliament had done?
The Two sides.
► Cavaliers
-King
► Roundheads
Parliament
-
Land changes hands & battles
War 1642-1645
► There
were 3 main battles during the Civil War.
Name these.
► Why do you think that each side tried to avoid full
battles?
► Why was Charles short of money during the war?
► Where did Parliament get money from during the
war? From the previous maps, explain how land
changed hands during the war.
Weapons
The New Model Army
► The
New Model Army
► An ‘Ironside’
was created by
Cromwell and Fairfax.
► It had properly
equipped and trained
soldiers and they were
paid.
► The soldiers were fined
for swearing.
Charles brought to trial
► This
is a picture of
King Charles whilst on
trial for treason and
murder.
► Where was his trial
held?
► Who were his ‘judges’?
► How many men tried
the king?
The King’s trial
► King
Charles was tried by a group of
_____________ in ___________ ________.
► He was accused of being a ___________ . He was
not allowed to ________ in his defence during his
trial . He was found _________ and was
sentenced to _______.
His death warrant was signed by _______ men.
They are called regicides (killers of a king).
traitor; guilty; 59; commissioners; Westminster hall;
death; speak.
The Execution of the King -30th
January 1649
► Where
did the
execution take place?
► Why do you think that
there was such a large
crowd watching this
execution?
► What has happened to
the person on the
ground at the front of
the picture?
What happened next?
► No
longer a king –who should rule?
► Who had been determined that Charles
should be tried?
► What was the name of the parliament which
► had first been called in 1640?
Who is this man?
Was he a hero or a villain?
List some good things
which Cromwell did for
this country eg
helped people who
were mentally unwell
List some things for
which Cromwell can be
criticised e.g what
happened in Ireland.
What positions did Cromwell take?
► This
is a portrait of
Cromwell. What is he
wearing on his head?
► What do you think this
means?
► Why do you think That
Cromwell did not
accept the title of
king?
Complete the sentences
► Cromwell
took the title of ______________
► He did not take the title of king because
____________________________________
► When Cromwell died in 1658, his place was taken
by ____________________
► In 1660, Charles 1’s son, ____________
was asked to come to England.
He was crowned as _________________ and ruled
from 1660-1685.
Charles 11 -1660-1685
The Great Plague 1665-numbers of
deaths
How did the authorities deal with the
plague?
The Great Fire of London 1666
The area of London destroyed by the
fire.
The death of Charles- who would
succeed?
► Charles
did not have any legitimate children
and so his brother James inherited the
throne. He was unpopular because he was
a Roman Catholic.
The Glorious Revolution -1688
► The
coronation of William and Mary
Why had James been driven out?
► Charles
11 did not have any legitimate
children. His brother _______ became
king. He was a R______ C________ . He
had 2 daughters, M______ and A_______ .
He also had a young son and many feared
that future kings would be Roman Catholic.
► James was forced to leave the country in
1688 and his daughter M_____ ruled with
her husband W___________ .
Why was this called the Glorious
Revolution?
► Explain
which ‘revolution’ has taken place.
► Why was it described as ‘glorious’?
► Consider the drawing of the Bill of Rights –
explain why the king is weighed down by
the chains.
► Explain how each of those points limited the
power of the king.
► Copy the sentences from ‘Why is all this so
important - real power’ (Aylett p.54)
Queen Anne
► How
many pregnancies
did she have?
► Who was her father?
► Who inherited the
throne after her death?
The Hanoverians.
► King
George 1 (1714-
1727
► Where is Hanover?
► Why were there
problems when he was
king?
The Jacobites
► These
were the followers of James 11 and
they claimed he and his family should rule.
The Battle of the Boyne -1690
► William
defeated the
Jacobites at this battle
in Ireland.
The Battle of Culloden Moor 1746
► ‘Bonny
Prince Charlie’
– the last Jacobite
claimant to the throne
was defeated at the
Battle of Culloden
Moor in 1746.
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